菌物学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (10): 2562-2578.doi: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210262

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原高寒草地AM真菌分布及其对近自然恢复的生态作用

温杨雪1,赵博1,罗巧玉2,贾云龙1,冯涛1,王强1,*()   

  1. 1.兰州大学 草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室 草地农业科技学院 甘肃 兰州 730020
    2.青海省青藏高原药用动植物资源重点实验室 青海师范大学生命科学学院 高原科学与可持续发展研究院 青海 西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-12 接受日期:2021-09-08 出版日期:2021-10-22 发布日期:2021-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 王强 E-mail:wqiang@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(32101333);青海省科技厅项目(2020-ZJ-Y40);甘肃省科技厅软科学项目:甘肃祁连山地区农地扶贫开发与生态环境保护的协同治理研究(20CX4ZA030)

Distribution and ecological role in close-to-nature restoration of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Tibetan Plateau alpine grassland

WEN Yang-Xue1,ZHAO Bo1,LUO Qiao-Yu2,JIA Yun-Long1,FENG Tao1,WANG Qiang1,*()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730020, China
    2. Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Medicinal Plant and Animal Resources of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, School of Life Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability, Xining, Qinghai 810008, China
  • Received:2021-07-12 Accepted:2021-09-08 Online:2021-10-22 Published:2021-11-05
  • Contact: Qiang WANG E-mail:wqiang@lzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(32101333);Qinghai Provincial Science and Technology Department Project(2020-ZJ-Y40);Department of Science and Technology of Gansu Province Project: Research on the Cooperative Governance of Agricultural Development for Poverty Alleviation and Ecological and Environmental Protection in Qilian Mountains(20CX4ZA030)

摘要:

超载过牧以及全球气候变化等导致大部分青藏高原高寒草地呈现持续退化态势。青藏高原高寒草地退化致使地上植物群落逐渐发生更替,地下土壤微生物群落多样性和丰富度发生改变。本文旨在探析青藏高原高寒草地丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizal,AM)真菌的分布特征、对近自然恢复的生理生态效应及其作用机制。青藏高原高寒草地中已报道4目14属61种AM真菌,约占已知AM真菌物种的20%。高寒草地禾本科植物根围AM真菌物种丰度最高,而莎草科植物根围AM真菌孢子密度最高。3种高寒草地植被类型中,高寒草原AM真菌丰度最高(33种),山地灌丛草原次之(32种),高寒草甸最低(22种)。高寒草原以光壁无梗囊霉Acaulospora laevis和闪亮和平囊霉Pacispora scintillans为优势种,山地灌丛草原以摩西斗管囊霉Funneliformis mosseae为优势种,高寒草甸以光壁无梗囊霉A. laevis、近明球囊霉Claroideoglomus claroideum和闪亮和平囊霉P. scintillans为优势种。高寒草地土著AM真菌与植物构建的菌根网络可以通过调节营养元素吸收、分配,促进植物建植和生长;但是毒杂草入侵可以改变土著AM真菌物种多样性和菌根网络,限制本地植被的实际生态位扩张。退化高寒草地中,AM真菌群落具有高的环境适应性和恢复力,其不仅调控地上植物群落建植和多样性,同时AM真菌建植也增加了代谢产物-球囊霉素相关土壤蛋白产生,进而协同改善地下土壤微生态系统,为退化高寒草地早期植被恢复塑造土壤生境。因此,AM真菌在退化高寒草地近自然恢复中具有较大的应用潜力。

关键词: 丛枝菌根真菌, 物种多样性, 菌根网络, 植被恢复

Abstract:

Overgrazing and global climate change have caused most of the Tibetan Plateau alpine grasslands to show a continuous degradation trend. The degradation of the alpine grasslands has led to the gradual replacement of aboveground plant communities, and changes in the diversity and richness of underground soil microbial communities. This review aims at exploring the distribution characteristics and physiological and ecological effects on close-to-nature restoration of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the alpine grasslands. In the alpine grasslands, 61 species of 14 genera in 4 orders of AM fungi have been reported, accounting for about 20% of the known AM fungal species. In the rhizosphere of grasses, the species abundance of AM fungi is the highest in alpine grassland; while in the sedge rhizosphere, the AM fungal spore density is the highest. Among the three alpine grassland vegetation types, AM fungi were the most abundant in alpine steppe with 33 species, secondarily in mountain shrub steppe with 32 species and only 22 species in alpine meadow. At species level, Acaulospora laevis and Pacispora scintillans are dominant in the alpine steppe, Funneliformis mosseae is dominant in the montane scrub, and A. laevis, Glomus claroideum, and P. scintillans dominate the alpine meadow. The mycorrhizal networks of indigenous AM fungi in alpine grassland can promote plant establishment and growth by regulating the absorption and allocation of nutrient elements; but the invasion of poisonous weeds can change the indigenous AM species diversity and common mycorrhizal networks, limiting the actual niche expansion of native grass species. AM fungal community has high environmental adaptability and resilience in the degraded alpine grassland. AM fungal community restoration not only regulates the establishment and diversity of aboveground plant community, but also increases the production of AM fungal product, glomalin-related soil protein, thereby synergistically improving the underground soil micro-ecosystem, shaping soil habitat for the early vegetation restoration. Therefore, AM fungi have great application potential in the close-to-nature restoration of degraded alpine grasslands.

Key words: AM fungi, species diversity, mycorrhizal networks, vegetation restoration