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  • Research papers
    TANG Jing, XU Rui, ZHAO Xue, WANG Yuting, TAN Hongyu, SHAN Junjie, LI Changwei, CUI Chengbin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1345-1359.

    The chemical constituents and their biological activities of the fruiting bodies of Lanmaoa asiatica, a kind of “lurid boletes”, were studied. Seventeen compounds including nine steroids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of 95% ethanol extract of the fungus by various column chromatography techniques or recrystallization. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified as citreoanthrasteroid (1), 1(10→6)abeo-ergosta-5,7,9,22-tetraen- 11β-methoxy-3α-ol (2), 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-6β-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), 9(11)-dehydroergosterol peroxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8(9),22- trien-7-one (6), (24S)-ergost-7-en-3β-ol (7), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol (8), ergosterol (9), adenosine (10), 5’-deoxy-5’-methylamino-adenosine (11), 5’-deoxy-5’-methylamino-9-(α-L- lyxofuranosyl)adenine (12), (R)-4-methylpiperidin-2-one (13), uridine (14), uracil (15), nicotinamide (16) and 1(2)-linolyl-2(1)-palmityl-glycero-O-4’-(N,N,N-trimethyl)homoserine (17). Among them, the exact assignments of the NMR signals of 1-3 were reported for the first time, compound 13 was a new natural product, and compounds 1-17 were reported to be isolated from Lanmaoa asiatica for the first time. The cytotoxic activity of 1-17 was evaluated by MTT assay, and the results showed that 1, 3-6 and 9 displayed relatively strong cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), mouse microglia cells (BV2) and human lung cancer cells (A549). Compound 10 displayed moderate cytotoxic activity against BV2 cells, with an IC50 of 48.34 μmol/L. The chemical constituents of Lanmaoa asiatica were comprehensively investigated, and this study will be meaningful in utilization of Lanmaoa asiatica.

  • Research papers
    SU Guanglin, FU Shenglin, FANG Liang, TANG Lihua, OU Xiaoyun, ZHAN Yingxin, LIU Bin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1231-1239.

    In June 2021, a suspected cobweb disease was found in a Ganoderma sinense culture base in Nanning, Guangxi, China. Based on tissue isolation method, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis (ITS, RPB2, TEF1), morphological characters and Koch’s postulates, the pathogen was identified as Cladobotryum protrusum. The best medium for hyphal growth was PDA, and the optimal carbon source and nitrogen source were respectively soluble starch and yeast extract powder; The optimum growth temperature and pH were 25 ℃ and 6, respectively. Darkness is benefical to hyphal growth. This is the first report of C. protrusum causing cobweb on cultivated G. sinense.

  • Research papers
    ZHOU Li, ZHUANG Wenying
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1966-1980.

    Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. It is widely distributed in nature, which is an easy-to-obtain and inexpensive renewable resource. The treatment and utilization of natural cellulose is an urgent problem to be solved. Therefore, screening excellent cellulase-producing strains and enabling effective utilization of cellulose is an important task. Nowadays cellulase is widely used in industrial and agricultural fields like stockbreeding, energy, textile, etc. Therefore, selection of high-efficiency and low-cost cellulase production fungal strains becomes the goal of this research. Trichoderma species are one of the groups of high-level cellulase producing fungi, which have the advantages of rich enzyme production, complete enzyme system, and high enzyme activity. Their extracellular enzymes are easy to separate and purify. In this study, 150 Trichoderma strains belonging to 25 species obtained in our previous research were used as the materials. Among them, 14 strains appeared to possess relatively high cellulase-producing ability as screened by the Congo red plate method, filter paper enzyme activity assay, and natural cellulose degradation tests. Three of them were further explored to optimal conditions for enzyme production, such as inoculation amount of spore suspension, required amount of Tween 80, and pH of fermentation, etc. Our results showed that Trichoderma guizhouense strain 8705 expressed the best enzyme production ability, and its supernatant enzyme activity reached 6.63 IU/mL when fermented in shake flasks in the optimized fermentation medium at 20 °C for 9 days. This indicates that temperature, time and medium significantly influence the fermentation efficacy of the Trichoderma strain.

  • Research papers
    CHEN Deyao, LONG Chunli, HE Rongjian, DONG Ruihao, JIANG Long
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(8): 1661-1672.

    Cetraspora huaxica, a new species of Cetraspora (Diversisporales, Glomeromycotina), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chimonobambusa utilis in Huaxi District of Guiyang City, China. It forms hyaline spores 187-361×210-378 μm on pale yellow to pale yellow brown sporogenous cells. The germination shields are hyaline to pale yellow brown with multiple (4-8) lobes; the spores have three walls: a triple-layered outer wall (OWL1-3), a bi-layered middle wall (MWL1-2) and a triple-layered inner wall (IWL1-3), of which the OWL2 and IWL3 stain deep pink to bright red-brown when exposed in Melzer’s reagent. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of nuclear rDNA (spanning the partial small subunit, whole internal transcribed spacer, and partial large subunit segment; SSU-ITS-LSU) indicate that this species belongs to the genus Cetraspora and forms an independent clade. Detailed descriptions of the new taxon and a comparison with its phylogenetically related taxa are provided.

  • Research papers
    XU Juan, ZOU Qin, XU Yanjun, WU Chenyin, YOU Huafang, ZHA Xingxue, CHEN Song
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1517-1529.

    ITS sequencing, phylogenetic tree construction, biological characteristics and quality analysis of Auricularia sinodelicata Qian No. 1 collected from Guizhou were carried out. Auricularia sinodelicata Qian No. 1 was clustered into the Auricularia sinodelicata lineage with high support of 90%. The optimum temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, and inorganic salt for cultivation of Auricularia sinodelicata Qian No. 1 are 22-25 °C, fructose, yeast powder, 20:4, and magnesium sulfate, respectively. The single factor orthogonal test showed that the best combination of culture medium was brown sugar, yeast powder and magnesium sulfate. Bag culture was conducted by using brood-leaved wood sawdust (78%), wheatbran (15%), rice bran (5%), gypsum powder (0.5%), slaked lime (0.5%) and glucose (1%) as substrate. The growth cycle of domesticated fruiting body needs (52±5) days, and the single bag yield is (300±95) g/FW. The basidiocarp is thick, (107.750±12.697) mm long, (75.96±14.87) mm wide, (13.37±3.49) mm thick, and the rehydration ratio is 8.74±0.28. The basidiocarp contains 8.95 g/100 g of crude protein, 64.9% of total sugar, 10.3% of crude fiber, and 1.5 g/100 g of crude fat. The total amino acid content of basidiocarp is 9.800 4 g/100 g, and the medicinal amino acid (5.45 g/100 g) accounts for 55.61%. Fresh amino acids (2.64 g/100 g) accounted for 26.94%. The chemical score and amino acid score were 26.00 and 40.86 respectively. This study will provide scientific basis for domestic cultivation of wild Auricularia sinodelicata in Guizhou.

  • Short communications
    ZHU Xiaofei, LIU Hong, ZHOU Qian
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(8): 1798-1806.

    A rapid and simple method for preparing PCR reaction template of filamentous fungi and improving the efficiency of filamentous fungal strain identification and transformant screening was established. Ten different species of filamentous fungi were used as materials to compare the effects of microwave preparation of filamentous fungi PCR templates using three different reagents, and the duration of microwave treatment were optimized. The templates for PCR could be obtained by adding 50 mmol/L NaOH to a small of mycelium, breaking up the mycelium with sterile sucker, treating it with high heat in microwave oven for 30 s, and centrifuging the solution to get the supernatant. The PCR templates of 10 different species of filamentous fungi obtained by this method can be amplified by ITS primers, and the same clear and bright target bands as the DNA templates extracted by the traditional CTAB method can be obtained. The templates prepared by this method are suitable for different primers and different PCR amplification products. The PCR template prepared by this method was used to screen the transformants of Stemphylium vesicarium, and the results were consistent with the DNA extracted by the traditional CTAB method. This rapid and simple PCR template preparation method for screening large number of transformants and molecular identification of filamentous fungi greatly reduces the labor and material resources cost in the process of DNA extraction.

  • Research papers
    YANG Xiaomin, CUI Fengxian, ZHAN Xiaokun, YUAN Pengyu, ZHANG Xiyu, CHEN Pengzhi, CHEN Youyou, AN Shuang, ZHOU Xue, LIU Jiayan, LÜ Wei, LI Zongju
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1185-1202.

    Lanmaoa asiatica is a rare edible and medicinal fungus in Yunnan Province, which belongs to ectomycorrhizal fungi, and part of its mycelia could kink together to form primordia on pure media. In order to reveal the potential substances regulating the development of primordia, three metabolomics techniques, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS, were used to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the differential substances between the mycelia and the primordia cultured for 35 days, in combination with SMICA-P software. The results showed that 96 significantly or extremely significantly up-regulated substances such as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, tryptophan, 4-aminobutyric acid, betaine, trehalose and so on were detected in mycelia; analysis of the regulatory pathways showed these differential substances might involve 22 important pathways in the development of primordia. According to KEGG enrichment analysis, glutamate is involved in all regulatory pathways with P<0.05, so it is speculated that glutamate plays an important role in the regulation of primordium development. By adding 0.16 g/L glutamate in the media, the germination and growth of primordia were promoted. The above results provide reference for development of artificial breeding of Lanmaoa asiatica.

  • Research papers
    LI Cong, WU Youhan, YAO Qingzhi
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1045-1062.

    Three forest regions of Larix gmelinii and four forest regions of L. gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii in Inner Mongolia were selected as sampling points. Endophytic fungi in root segments of the two larch species were isolated and cultured by tissue isolation methods, and identification of the fungi was based on morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS region sequence analysis. The community composition and diversity of root endophytic fungi in different tree species and different plots of the same tree species were analyzed. The results were that 225 isolates of culturable endophytic fungi were obtained, belonging to 31 species of 17 genera in 9 families of 4 orders and 3 classes. Among them, dark septate endophytes (DSE) accounted for the largest proportion and were the main endophytic fungal group. Cadophora echinata, Phialocephala fortinii, Phi. helvetica and Pleotrichocladium opacum were in common in the roots of the two larch species. Among them, Phi. fortinii and Phi. helvetica were dominant in the roots of L. gmelinii and L. gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii respectively. The root-specific endophytic fungal species in the two larch species were different, and the similarity of community structure was low. The diversity index and evenness index of endophytic fungi in L. gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii were higher than those in L. gmelinii. The evenness of fungal community in the three sample plots of L. gmelinii forest region was low. The similarity coefficient between different sites of the same tree species indicated that the community composition was comparatively similar when the geographical location and stand conditions were similar. In conclusion, there were some differences in the composition of endophytic fungi in the roots of the two larch species, and the fungal community structure of the same tree species in different plots were obviously different, but overall, endophytic fungal resources in roots of larches in Inner Mongolia were very rich.

  • Research papers
    FU Xianhui, WANG Yu, MA Yutong, JIANG Cong, ZHANG Xue
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1087-1101.

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is an important fungal disease of crops. The occurrence and epidemic of this disease limits the yield of rice and threatens the global food security. Apoptosis and autophagy play an important role in the pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Svf1, an anti-apoptosis survival factor, is related to infection in Fusarium graminearum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. However, the function of M. oryzae MoSvf1 is not clear. The phylogenetic study showed that Svf1 was highly conserved in fungi. MoSVF1 gene was deleted and the phenotypes of Mosvf1 mutants were observed. Deletion of MoSVF1 caused reduction of growth rate and abnormality of mycelium morphology, but significantly increased the conidiation. These results indicated that MoSvf1 positively regulated the vegetative growth of M. oryzae and negatively regulated the conidiogenesis. There were no visible defects in appressorium formation or pathogenicity of Mosvf1 mutants. To further study the interaction regulatory network of MoSvf1, MoSvf1-interacted proteins were identified by IP-MS and identified several proteins related to intracellular signal transduction and apoptosis were discovered. The analysis of interactions of MoSvf1 is helpful to further reveal the regulation and action mode of MoSvf1, and to elucidate the fungal growth and apoptosis of M. oryzae.

  • Research papers
    MOU Guangfu, BAU Tolgor
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1461-1484.

    The national nature reserves in karst forests of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are the priority areas for biodiversity conservation of China. However, the funga in karst forests of Guangxi was still unclear and lack of related studies. In this study, Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Mulun National Nature Reserve and the Yachang Orchid National Nature Reserve were chosen as the representative areas to survey the funga in karst forests of Guangxi. In total, 777 species were found, belonging to 2 phyla, 6 classes, 21 orders, 97 families and 318 genera. The dominant families are Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Hymenogastraceae, Hypoxylaceae, Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae, Omphalotaceae, Physalacriaceae, Polyporaceae and Psathyrellaceae, accounting for 11.34% of the total families and 42.21% of the total species. The dominant genera are Cookeina, Hypoxylon, Ophiocordyceps, Phillipsia, Sarcoscypha, Xylaria, Agaricus, Amanita, Auricularia, Marasmius, etc., accounting for 13.52% of the total genera and 43.76% of the total species. The representative families are Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae, Phallaceae, Podoscyphaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae, Tremellaceae, Xylariaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Gomphaceae, Hydnaceae and Lyophyllaceae. The representative genera are Cookeina, Phillipsia, Sarcoscypha, Xylaria, Chaetocalathus, Chlorophyllum, Cyptotrama, Echinochaete, Favolaschia, Favolus, Ganoderma, Gerronema, Hexagonia, Hymenochaete, Inocybe, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Lentinus, Leucocoprinus, Marasmius, Micropsalliota, Neofavolus, Oudermansiella, Podoscypha, Pterula, Roridomyces, Singerocybe, Termitomyces, Tetrapyrgos and Tropicoporus. This study is preliminary, providing a reference for the future further study of fungal diversity and fungal-plant interactions in karst forests of Guangxi.

  • Review
    TANG Luxin, WANG Yaxian, PENG Mingyi, WANG Hao, SI Jing, CUI Baokai
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1821-1837.

    Laccases are so called as green catalysts since they can reduce a vast of substrates including lignocellulose and other macromolecular polymers into water and low-molecular weight by-products, without formation of secondary pollutants. Therefore, laccases have huge potentials in various industrial applications. For free laccases, immobilization treatment is capable of enhancing their capacities to adapt harsh conditions for industrial utilization, thermostability, reusability, and expanding the tolerant ranges of pH and temperature. As fungal laccases are important origins of laccases, their properties, production, current immobilization strategies, and potential applications in various fields were summarized in this review.

  • Research papers
    MAMUT Reyim, FANG Jinjin, ANWAR Gulmira
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1273-1284.

    Ramalina sinensis is a widespread lichen in the Northern Hemisphere, and its metabolites have various biological activities such as antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities. Complete mitogenome of R. sinensiswe was sequenced, assembled, and annotated for the first time. The mitochondrial genome is of closed-loop structure with total length of 38 265 bp, encoding 42 genes including 15 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 25 tRNA genes. R. sinensis mitochondrial genome had a significant AT preference. Twenty-four tRNAs were successfully predicted as typical cloverleaf structures. Relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed a significant preference for A/U ending codons. Ramalinaceae collinearity analysis revealed no large gene rearrangements. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes showed a more intimate evolutionary relationship between R. sinensis and R. intermedia. Fifteen protein-coding genes had different Ka/Ks values, showing there were under different selection pressures. The phylogenetic analysis showed R. sinensis and R. intermedia has close relationship. This study provides basic data for future studies of phylogenetic evolution and genetic diversity of Ramalina.

  • Reviews
    LI Wanying, GAO Lei, WU Fang, DOU Zhipeng
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(10): 2011-2024.

    In recent years, with advances in biotechnology and modern industrial technology, the industry of edible and medicinal fungi has been developed rapidly in China. Edible and medicinal fungi have been utilized more and more extensively and their varietal structure has been greatly improved. This review summarizes the latest research progress of edible and medicinal mushrooms domesticated and cultivated in China during the last ten years. A checklist of 33 edible and medicinal mushrooms that have been successfully domesticated and cultivated in China in recent ten years was sorted out, and the biological characteristics and cultivation conditions of these mushrooms, including the optimal growth temperature, pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, and substrate, etc., are summarily introduced.

  • Research papers
    LI Minqi, YAN Xingfu, REN Yufeng, ZHOU Libiao, DENG Xiaojuan
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1889-1905.

    Line transmutation method and random stepping method were used to investigate macrofungi in different altitude and vegetation types in the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve, Ningxia, western China. The collected specimens were identified by morphological and molecular biology methods. Species composition and floristic characteristics were analyzed. 679 specimens were collected and identified as 230 species belonging to 83 genera in 40 families in 16 orders of 11 classes of 2 phyla. Among them, 209 species belong to 73 genera in 32 families in 10 orders of 7 classes of Basidiomycota, and 21 species belong to 10 genera in 8 families in 6 orders of 4 classes of Ascomycota. Species of dominant families Tricholomataceae, Strophariaceae, Psathyrellaceae, Agaricaceae, Mycenaceae, Russulaceae, Inocybaceae, and Polyporaceae account for 55.65% of the total species. Species of eighteen dominant genera account for 51.30% of the total species. Among the 209 species, 42 are edible, 4 are medicinal, 11 are simultaneously edible and medicinal, and 17 are poisonous. Species richness and diversity of macrofungi in Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation at altitude of 2 172 m were highest. The generic distribution patterns show obvious temperate characteristics, consisting of cosmopolitan distribution (49.40%), northern temperate distribution (39.76%), pan-tropical distribution (2.41%) and Mediterranean region-Western Asia to Central Asia distribution (1.20%).

  • Research papers
    LI Shoujian, DONG Caihong
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1258-1272.

    Wolfiporia hoelen is an edible and medicinal fungus that has been cultivated in China for a long time and is cultivated currently on a large scale. However strain degeneration and decrease in yield caused by long-term asexual propagation affected the development of the industry. In order to solve the difficult breeding problem, distinguishing methods of homokaryotic strains and single-spore homokaryotic strain crossbreeding systems were constructed, and the mating system was disclosed in our previous studies. However, the difficulty of fruiting in some strains or attachment of some fruiting bodies to the media resulted in the difficulty of collecting basidiospores still remains unsettled. Therefore, the research on protoplast monokaryogenesis is important and meaningful. In the present study, the two strains, 775 and 776, with distant genetic relationship and different homokaryotic types, were used as experimental strains. Nuclear fluorescence staining revealed that more than 60% of protoplasts had nuclei, and the protoplast regeneration ratio was 7.6% and 11.0% respectively. The regenerative strains with growth stagnancy included both homokaryotic and heterokaryotic strains. The homokaryotic strains were collected with a ratio over 10%, and the homokaryotic strain 776 with different mating type was collected with a ratio of 5:3 with no partial separation (χ2=0.5), and strain 775 with only one mating type was collected with a significant partial separation. By crossing of protoplast homokaryotic strains derived from protoplast and single spore, 25 and 50 hybrids were produced separately, which were confirmed by antagonism tests and rpb2 specific loci. This protoplast homokaryotic strain crossbreeding method built in W. hoelen was proved to be practicable.

  • Research papers
    GU Dandan, SHI Lingyu, ZHANG Jinxiu, WANG Meihua, DENG Xiaoqing, WANG Li’an
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1139-1150.

    The nutritional and environmental characteristics of a wild Amylosporus succulentus strain, collected from Yanshan area of Hebei Province were studied. The suitable medium for its stock culture, mother spawn, and spawn were screened, and the mushroom was successfully domesticated. Through single factor test and orthogonal test screening, the optimized culture medium formula for the mycelial growth was obtained as follows: soluble starch 1.80%, yeast extract powder 0.25%, magnesium sulfate 0.15%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.30%, agar 2.00%. The mycelia suitably grow at 31-34 °C and pH 4.5-5.5 under dark condition. The suitable stock culture and mother spawn media were corn flour medium and millet medium respectively. Mycelial sackful cultivation needs 30-60 days after inoculation. The primordia appeared 5-10 days later, and differentiated into fruit bodies after 6-11 days. The high-yielding substrate for commercialized cultivation was formulated as follows: corncob 39%, cottonseed shell 39%, gypsum 1%, glucose 1%. The yield of the first fruiting stage was 106.9 g/bag, and the biological efficiency was 66.81%. The acute oral toxicity test showed that there was no obvious risk of acute poisoning caused by A. succelentus when the maximum dosage was 4 612.4 mg/kg in mice.

  • Research papers
    XIN Qi, Tom Hsiang, LI Yu, ZHU Zhaoxiang, LIU Shuyan
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1876-1888.

    Wangtian’e Nature Reserve is located in the southern part of Changbai Mountains, with rich biological resources. The survey of diversity of macrofungi in Wangtian’e Nature Reserve was carried out and 1 425 specimens were collected from 2019 to 2021. Based on the morphological identification and molecular systematics, 161 species were identified, belonging to 101 genera, 48 families, 17 orders, 7 classes, and 2 phyla, including one new Chinese record Amanita regalis. Among them, the 48 species of 4 predominant families, Hydnangiaceae, Russulaceae, Mycenaceae, and Polyporaceae, accounted for around 29.81% of the total species, and 31 species of 5 dominant genera, Mycena, Lactarius, Russula, Crepidotus, and Hygrocybe, occupied 19.25% of the total species. Species of macrofungi in three different vegetation types of Wangtian’e Nature Reserve were analyzed. Plus, 65, 15, and 20 species were specific in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, broad-leaved forest, and the coniferous forest, respectively, and 25 species were in common to the three vegetation types. The alpha diversity index showed that the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had the highest species richness and species diversity index, and the coniferous forest had the most uniform species distribution. The evaluation of macrofungal resources showed that 59 species were edible, 42 medicinal, 27 poisonous, and 26 simultaneously edible and medicinal. This study provided valuable information for the conservation, development, and utilization of macrofungal resources in this area.

  • Review
    ZHANG Gongjie, Jos Houbraken, LI Dongming
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1441-1460.

    Penicillium species are ubiquitous in nature and mainly saprophytic or parasitic on plants causing penicilliosis. Few of them can infect healthy humans with normal immunity. With the increase of patients with immune deficiency in recent years, more and more cases of mankind penicilliosis with a variety of clinical types have been reported. It is not easy for clinicians to make an accurate diagnosis of penicilliosis if they are unfamiliar with these fungi. This retrospective paper are based on related literature in Medline and Chinese Literature Database, concerning pathogenic species, regional distribution, risk factors, clinical manifestations, drug sensitivity, diagnosis and treatment of penicilliosis. In total, 20 species of pathogenetic Penicillium were reported currently, including Penicillium bicolor, P. bertai, P. brevicompactum, P. casei, P. citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. commune, P. crustaceum, P. cyclopium, P. citreonigrum, P. capsulatum, P. decumbens, P. digitatum, P. emersonii, P. glaucum, P. janthinellum, P. lilanicum, P. purpurogenum, P. roqueforti and P. spinulosum. The clinical manifestation includes pulmonary infection, peritonium infection, endophthalmitis, endocarditis, central nervous system infection, keratitis, fungemia, urinary tract infection, otitis, esophagitis, paravertebral infection, periprosthetic joint infection, nasosinusitis, disseminated infection, skin infection, onychomycosis and so on. They can also cause a variety of allergic diseases as allergens. Clinical isolates of Penicillium spp. are generally sensitive to echinocandins, moderately resistant to amphotericin B, and posaconazole is the most sensitive azoles. This article aims at providing reference for a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of penicilliosis and clinical diagnosis concerned.

  • New cultivars
    LI Guoqing,YU Deshui,ZHU Peilei,ZHAO Guiyun,LIU Caiyu,ZHAO Hongyuan
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1219-1222.

    Ganoderma sinense ‘Wanzizhi No. 1’, Ganoderma sinense ‘Wanzizhi No. 2’ and Auricularia heimuer ‘Wanheimuer No. 2’, high-quality cultivars obtained through preferential selection of systematic breeding from wild strains in southern Anhui are reported. The fruiting body of ‘Wanzizhi No. 1’ is purple-red and that of ‘Wanzizhi No. 2’ is purple-black. Both of them are suitable for cultivation in southern Anhui with high yield of fruiting bodies and strong resistance to miscellaneous harmful bacteria and fungi. The fruiting bodies of ‘Wanheimuer No. 2’ are rounded or bowl-shaped, comparatively thick, with light brown color. Besides, it is high-yielding and resistant to higher temperature.

  • Research papers
    LI Miaomiao, LIN Jiantian, HUANG Zaixing, LIANG Yunlong, HUANG Fuchang, LIU Bin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1506-1516.

    Single-factor tests and orthogonal tests were conducted on the biological characteristics of the strain of Trametes elegans collected from Qinglong Mountain Nature Reserve in Guangxi. The optimum conditions for its domestication and cultivation were studied, and the antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of the cultivated basidiomata were determined. The results showed using glucose as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source, the mycelia grew well at pH 5.5 and incubation temperature of 30 °C. The effects of the four factors on the mycelial growth of Trametes elegans were ranked as follows: carbon source>temperature>nitrogen source>pH. Cottonseed hulls were used as the main material for cultivation, with additional different proportions of wood chips. The results showed that formulation 3 (cottonseed hulls 30%, wood chips 48%, bran 20%, lime 1%, gypsum 1%) was the best cultivation formulation, with mycelial growth rate reaching 10.46 mm/d, average yield of 54.74 g/bag and biological efficiency reaching 7.69%. Ultrasonication was used to extract the fruiting body water extract of T. elegans. The water extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL showed 100% clearance of ABTS and 90.07% clearance of DPPH at a water extract concentration of 5 mg/mL, indicating that the fungus has high antioxidant activity.

  • Research papers
    ZHOU Linjiang,GENG Binbin,ZHANG Guoli,ZHANG Yinghao,TIAN Xuemei
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(12): 2331-2355.

    To understand the species diversity and to explore potential resources of wood-rotting fungi in Shandong Province, a total of 1 178 specimens was collected in national forest parks, nature reserves, and botanical gardens in the province during 2019-2021. Based on these specimens together with 218 previously collected specimens, 227 species were identified by using combining morphological and molecular methods. According to the latest taxonomic system, they were classified into 131 genera, 54 families, 15 orders, 6 classes, and 2 phyla. Among these species 25 are edible, 91 medicinal, and 29 potentially industrially valuable, accounting for 11.01%, 39.57%, and 12.78% of the total number of species, respectively; 103 species are unclear functionally, accounting for 45.37% of the total number of species; 116 species are edible and medicinal simultaneously, accounting for 51.10% of the total number of species.

  • Research papers
    SONG Hanbing, LIU Jing, BAU Tolgor
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1848-1875.

    The delimitation between Conocybe and Pholiotina was ambiguous and controversial. Based on examination of specimens and literature, the taxonomic characteristics of these two genera were illustrated and explor their subgeneric classification was defined. At present, there are 37 species of Conocybe and 18 species of Pholiotina in China. In the Conocybe, there are 3 species of sect. Candidae, 1 of sect. Ochromarasmius, 10 of sect. Pilosellae, 17 of sect. Conocybe and 6 of sect. Mixtae. Among them, sect. Pilosellae harbors 3 new Chinese records, namely Conocybe velutipes, C. moseri and C. bisporigera; sect. Conocybe contains 2 new Chinese records, namely C. echinata and C. brachypodii. In the Pholiotina, there are 2 species of sect. Verrucisporae, 2 of sect. Intermediae, 6 of sect. Pholiotina, 3 of sect. Vestitae, 2 of sect. Cyanopodae and 3 of sect. Piliferae. Among them, Pholiotina dasypus was a new Chinese record in sect. Verrucisporae. Ph. serrata was proposed as a new combination in sect. Vestitae. Ph. cyanopus is a new Chinese record in sect. Cyanopodae, and Ph. coprophila was a new Chinese record in sect. Piliferae. Keys to the sections and species of Conocybe and Pholiotina from China are compiled, and the morphological descriptions and line drawings of newly recorded species are provided. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences are used to show the possible evolutionary relationships among the fungal taxa.

  • Short communications
    YAO Lei, CHEN Shuanglin, YAN Shuzhen
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(8): 1785-1797.

    Identification of specimens collected from Dabie Mountains on the basis of morphological taxonomy method in combination with molecular systematics method has yielded four ascomycete species new to China, Hypoxylon pulicicidum, H. ticinense, Phialocephala biguttulata and Rhizodiscina lignyota. These species were described and illustrated based on Chinese collections. ITS and LSU (or LSU) were selected to analyze the phylogenetic relationships, and Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis were used to structure phylogenetic trees. The taxonomic treatments of the four species were supported and confirmed by molecular data. Voucher specimens examined are deposited in the Herbarium of Fungi of Nanjing Normal University (HFNNU).

  • Research papers
    WANG Chuanhua, YANG Huilin, ZENG Yujie, WANG Yehong, PENG Honglin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1929-1941.

    Liquid culture suspension of eight species of Armillaria was inoculated to 1cm3 wood columns of Quercus serrata and the inoculated wood columns were incubated at 23 °C for 60 and 120 days. The tested Armillaria species (biological species) are A. sinapina (CBS A), A. gallica (CBS B), A. ostoyae (CBS D), A. sinensis (CBS F), A. bruneocystidia (CBS H), A. qinii (CBS J), A. borealis (CBS M) and A. violacea (CBS N). The wood weight, cellulose content, lignin content and hemicellulose content were determined by gravimetric method, Klason method, sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis method, respectively. The difference of wood-decaying ability of each Armillaria species was valued. The results showed that dry mass loss rate of each Armillaria species to Quercus serrata wood was ordinally CBS M>CBS A=CBS J=CBS H=CBS F=CBS B>CBS N=CBS D. The decomposition capacities to lignin of Armillaria species were ordinally CBS M=CBS A=CBS J>CBS H=CBS B=CBS F>CBS N>CBS D. The degradation efficiency of cellulose was ranked as CBS H=CBS A>CBS B>CBS J>CBS F>CBS D>CBS M>CBS N. The decomposition capacities of hemicellulose was ranked as CBS M>CBS J>CBS H=CBS A=CBS F=CBS N>CBS B>CBS D. The capacities to total lignocellulosic consumption was ranked as CBS H>CBS A>CBS J>CBS B>CBS F>CBS M>CBS D>CBS N. The wood-decaying capability of Chinese Armillaria species is moderate or even lower among the wood rot fungi. The decaying capacities among Armillaria species are diverses, manifesting their different degradation capacity to lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignocellulose. The wood rot caused by Armillaria also showed variability of white rot and brown rot among species due to adaptation of the species to forest ecosystem in China. The degradation of litters and the mechanism of carbon cycle in forest ecosystem affected by Armillaria species need further study.

  • Research papers
    ZHU Xuetai, ZHANG Yidan, JIANG Changsheng, ZHANG Jinming, LIU Lijuan
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(9): 1838-1847.

    Haasiella is a rare genus in Hygrophoraceae, which includes only two species reported from Europe thus far, H. venustissima and H. splendidissima. Based on studies of phylogeny and morphology, eight specimens collected from Liancheng Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, western China were confirmed as a new species in genus Haasiella and named as H. sinensis. This species is morphologically similar to European species in having small basidiomata with pale orange umbilicate pileus and metachromatic spores distinctly red in cresyl blue. However, H. sinensis is different in having tetrasterigmatic, sometimes monosterigmatic or bisterigmatic basidia in the same fruitbody; clamp connections present throughout the secondary mycelium and the fungus grows on soil humus in the forest.

  • Reviews
    HUANG Zhendi, MIAO Huabiao, PEI Dingyu, TANG Xianghua, WU Qian, HUANG Zunxi
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(10): 2025-2040.

    Tricholoma matsutake is a rare edible and medicinal fungus in the world. Its active components (such as Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharide, polypeptide, Tricholoma matsutake alcohol, terpenes, and steroids) have been confirmed to have good effects on antioxidation, antitumor, immune regulation, antibacterial activity, skin care, and have great potential in the development of dietary nutritional supplements, cosmetics, and drugs. However, the current consumption pattern of T. matsutake in China is still mainly fresh food and primarily processed products, being at a standstill of low degree of finishing. In this paper, the active components of T. matsutake and their research progress were reviewed, and the suggestions for their commercial application were put forward, aiming at providing a theoretical reference for the deep processing and utilization of T. matsutake in China and a scientific basis for promoting the development of rural economy.

  • Research papers
    MA Guanhua, QIN Xiu, ZHANG Jingsong, YAN Mengqiu, ZHOU Shuai, FENG Jie, ZHOU Jing, LIU Yanfang
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1360-1369.

    The β-glucooligosaccharide fraction GLPW-A (DP2-14) from Ganoderma lingzhi was separated by Bio-Gel P-2 chromatography column. The eluting conditions including eluent, flow rate and collection volume per tube were optimized. The polymerization degree of isolated fractions were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and the anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions were evaluated in vitro. Under the optimal separation conditions of 0.1 mol/L NH4HCO3 solution eluted at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min and 2 mL collection volume per tube, eight fractions (F1-F8) were successively obtained. The polymerization degree analysis showed that F8 and F7 mainly comprised oligosaccharides with DP2 and DP3, respectively, and other isolated fractions (F6-F1) mainly contained components with 2-3 kinds of different polymerization degrees. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity showed that F5 and F6 mainly contained DP4-DP6 had no obvious anti-inflammatory activity in the concentration of 0.5-10 μg/mL, while the other fractions showed different level of anti-inflammatory activity at specific concentrations. The anti-inflammatory activity of β-glucooligosaccharide was related to the degree of polymerization of oligosaccharide fragments.

  • Research papers
    JIANG Ying, ZOU Feng, HUANG Jian, DAI Weihong, ZUO Ronghua, TIAN Shiyi, XIONG Huan
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1311-1329.

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) can widely form symbiosis with forest trees to promote the absorption of soil phosphorus. However, phosphate dissolving capacity of different fungal strains varied with different phosphorus sources, and the physiological factors affecting the dissolving capacity were still unclear. In this study, five fungal strains from Castanea mollissima and C. henryi forest were isolated, purified, and homology molecular identification was carried out on the basis of ITS sequencing. Together with Cenococcum geophilum (CG) obtained by the previous research, the strains were cultured on Montana medium containing insoluble organic phosphorus (calcium phytate C6H6Ca6O24P6, lecithin C42H80NO8P) and insoluble inorganic phosphorus (aluminum phosphate AlPO4, iron phosphate FePO4). The colony diameter, dry mass of mycelium, phosphorus dissolving rate, acid phosphatase activity, pH value, citric acid and oxalic acid content of six ECMF strains were determined to analyze the growth and phosphorus dissolving characteristics of each strain under different insoluble phosphorus sources. Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore the main physiological factors affecting the phosphorus dissolving rate under different insoluble phosphorus sources. Results showed that the growth rates of six ECMF strains were significantly different on the medium with different insoluble phosphorus (P<0.05). Scleroderma citrinum LY-20-2 grew fastest on the medium with AlPO4. On the media with other three insoluble phosphorus, Pisolithus orientalis LY-8 grew fastest. The capacities of six ECMF strains dissolving four kinds of insoluble phosphorus were significantly different (P<0.05). When C6H6Ca6O24P6 was used as phosphorus source, LY-8 had the highest phosphorus dissolving rate of 28.9%. When C42H80NO8P and FePO4 were used as phosphorus sources, the phosphorus dissolving rates of LY-20-2 were the highest, reaching 3.2% on the medium with C42H80NO8P and 4.6% on the medium with FePO4. When AlPO4 was used as phosphorus sources, the phosphorus dissolving rate of CG was the highest, reaching 3.2%. The pH values of the fermentation broth of each strain decreased when 4 insoluble phosphorus sources were added. All strains except Scleroderma sp. 2 (MB) did not secrete oxalic acid as C42H80NO8P and FePO4 were used as phosphorus sources. When C6H6Ca6O24P6 was used as phosphorus source, the colony diameter, dry mass of mycelium, acid phosphatase activity and oxalic acid content were significantly positively correlated with the phosphorus dissolving rate (r=0.61-0.88). When C42H80NO8P was used as phosphorus source, the colony diameter and acid phosphatase activity were significantly positively correlated with the phosphorus dissolving rate (r=0.50-0.95). When AlPO4 was used as phosphorus sources, there was a significant positive correlation between the dissolved phosphorus rate and citric acid (r=0.55). When FePO4 was used as phosphorus sources, there was no significant correlation between the dissolved phosphorus rate and citric acid content (r=0.44). There were highly significant negative correlation between phosphorus dissolving rates and pH values (r=−0.88-−0.70) under the existence of four insoluble phosphorus. It was found that compared to C42H80NO8P, AlPO4 and FePO4, C6H6Ca6O24P6 had a preference for ECMF strains from chestnut forest. ECMF adopt different strategies to dissolve different insoluble phosphorus sources, including regulating the growth rate and secreting different kinds of organic acids.

  • Research papers
    WANG Xiuru, SHEN Zhenxing, YANG Yiming, FAN Hao, YANG Liu, SUN Jian, WANG Tao, LI Fangxiang
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1413-1422.

    Morel culture substrate was sterilized by plasma technology at normal pressure and low temperature. The effects of four single factor variables, voltage, frequency, treatment time and treatment times, on colony number and water content were investigated, and the treatment conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. The results showed that the sterilization rate of bacteria and fungi increased with the increase of voltage, time and times of atmospheric plasma treatment, and the water loss also increased. With the increase of plasma treatment frequency, the sterilization rate first increased and then decreased, showing a tendency of “volcanic type”. There were significant differences in germicidal effect under different treatment conditions (P<0.05). The orthogonal test showed that the influencing degree of the four factors was ranged as frequency>voltage>treatment time>treatment times. The optimal sterilization condition was as follows: voltage 30 kV, frequency 9.6 kHz, time 45 min, once a treatment. Under this condition, the sterilization rates of bacteria and fungi were 96.87% and 93.77%, respectively, and the water loss was less.

  • Research papers
    ZHAO Kuan, XU Jianping
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1240-1257.

    Cantharellus enelensis is a popular edible mushroom in eastern North America. Burnt Hill (BH), a small hill surrounded by water on three sides in the heart of Gros Morne National Park of Canada, has been consistently producing fruiting bodies of C. enelensis since at least the 1960s. In contrast, the surrounding areas are not known to produce any fruiting body of this species. Understanding how such an isolated population persists has significant conservation and economic importance. In this study, we obtained and analyzed the genotypes of 109 fruiting bodies from BH, among which, 81 were collected from six patches separated by more than 100 m from each other and the remaining 28 were randomly collected five days later throughout the hill. Genotyping based on microsatellite markers revealed three, five and two alleles at the three loci respectively, with each local patch dominated by one to two alleles at each locus. The three markers revealed 29 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) among the 109 fruiting bodies. The genotype frequencies at each local patch population and in the total sample were overall consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Among the six local patches, while the total samples showed statistically significant genetic differentiation, no difference was observed among the clone-corrected samples. Comparisons between samples from the two time points separated by five days revealed minor differences in allele and genotype frequencies. In addition, we compared the BH population with those at two other sites in Newfoundland (~200 km and ~600 km away) and one site in Hamilton, Ontario (~2 000 km away) to identify potentially unique alleles and genotypes at BH. Together, our analyses demonstrated that mutation, sexual reproduction, gene flow, selection, and genetic drift have all contributed to the genetic diversity within this local chantarelle population.

  • Research papers
    WANG Kexuan, SHU Bo, YUAN Zhilin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(8): 1673-1690.

    Fusarium spp. are notorious, causing devastating diseases of many crops and trees. However, the degree of diversity and ecological significances of Fusarium species in non-agricultural ecosystems is still less known. This paper aims at revealing the diversity of Fusarium species from coastal saline areas, and their traits relevant to abiotic stress and pathogenicity. Abiotic stress includes the stresses induced by H2O2, MSB, KCl, sorbitol, CFW, congo red and NaCl. In total, 23 Fusarium strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of halophytes. A combination of morphology and multi-loci (ITS+rpb2+ tef1-α) phylogeny classified the tested strains into seven phylogenetic species. Among them, F. oxysporum, F. foetens, F. fujikuroi and Fusarium sp.1 showed similar patterns of resistant ability to abiotic stresses, while a potential novel group (Fusarium sp.2 and Fusarium sp.3) was more resistant to the majority of stresses. F. ambrosium was more susceptible to the stresses. Most strains harbored the gene for enniatin biosynthesis, and approximately one third of the strains retained genes for fumonisins. Only very few had trichothecenes related genes (tri5 and tri11). Only six2, six9, and six13 coding effectors (secreted in xylem) were amplified from a small fraction of strains. Inoculation experiments demonstrated that most Fusarium strains displayed varied degrees of pathogenicity to Arabidopsis and poplar plants, and few of them significantly improved plant growth. Unexpectedly, all Fusarium strains did not cause symptoms in wheat seedlings. Intriguingly, there was no clear difference between pathogenic and beneficial Fusarium strains with regard to their number of toxin biosynthetic and six genes. Our work provides model for revealing the genomic evolution behind the trophism shift in Fusarium and addressing plant-Fusarium mutualistic interactions.

  • Research papers
    LIU Liguang, DING Zhaojian, LI Menghan, WU Chunhua, XIE Xinjie, PENG Jun, ZHANG Xin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1575-1587.

    Methionine plays a crucial role in various biological processes in fungi, bacteria and plants. FgMETB encodes a cystathionine gamma-synthase, which is essential for methionine biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum. In this study, the deletion mutant strains of FoMETB, a homologue of F. graminearum FgMETB, in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (Foc4) were obtained by using homologous recombination technology. The FoMETB deletion mutant strains were unable to grow on minimal medium containing SO42- as the sole sulphur source. Supplementation of 1 mmol/L methionine, but not 1 mmol/L cysteine, rescued the defect of mycelial growth of FoMETB deletion mutant. These results indicated that the enzyme encoded by FoMETB is involved in conversion of cysteine into methionine. In addition, the FoMETB deletion mutant strains showed significant reduction in aerial hypha growth, conidiation, dry weight of mycelium and virulence attacking banana plantlets. This study indicated that FoMETB plays a critical role in regulation of various biological processes in Foc4. This key synthase FoMETB in methionine synthesis is desirable as a new potential antifungal drug target.

  • Research papers
    GUO Yangbian, DU Xiao, LIU Chang, CHANG Mingchang, MENG Junlong, DENG Bing, LIU Jingyu
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1151-1162.

    The content changes of total polyphenols and total flavonoids in polyphenol compounds extracted from fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus (HEP) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GD) were investigated. The release and in vitro antioxidant activities of phenolic acids and flavonoids were further analyzed and compared at different in vitro gastrointestinal digestion stages. The protective effects of HEP and its GD treatment products on macrophage were in depth detected and analyzed using H2O2-induced RAW 264.7 cells as oxidative damage cell model. The results showed that compared with untreated HEP, the content of total polyphenols and total flavonoids in HEP digested by stomach (HEP-S) increased by 11.66% and 27.33%, respectively. Meanwhile, DPPH, ABTS and ·OH radical scavenging capacities of HEP-S increased by 10.33%, 17.52% and 2.22% as compared with those of undigested HEP, respectively. The total polyphenols and flavonoids in intestinal digestion product (HEP-I) decreased by 35.82% and 46.67% as compared with those of undigested HEP. Scavenging abilities to DPPH, ABTS and ·OH radicals of HEP-I decreased by 60.02%, 50.13% and 46.43% as compared with those of undigested HEP, respectively. UPLC-MS/MS detection indicated that HEP, HEP-S and HEP-I were all composed of 18 phenolic acids and 2 flavonoids, and no new component was detected in HEP-S and HEP-I samples. However, the content of some phenolic acids and flavonoids of HEP-S and HEP-I significantly changed as compared with that of undigested HEP. Unlike the results of chemical antioxidant determination, HEP-S had no significant protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in RAW 264.7 cells (P<0.05) compared with undigested HEP treatment, but the protective effect of HEP-I on the oxidation of RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased as compared with that of undigested HEP.

  • Research papers
    HE Shuxian, XIE Dechun, SONG Bin, DENG Wangqiu, MO Meihua, LI Taihui, ZHANG Ming
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(11): 2171-2187.

    Nanling is one of the hotspots of biodiversity in China, and is the treasure house of biological resources in Guangdong Province of southern China. Boletes are the important group of macrofungi, having important ecological, economic and scientific values. The species diversity of Boletales in Nanling mountainous area was investigated based on morphological characters and molecular evidences. In total, 79 species were identified, belonging to 3 families and 31 genera, including one new species and 37 newly recorded species in Nanling. Twenty-eight taxa were found to be misidentified previously, and 25 previously reported species were dubious because of insufficient data. In the present paper, the species list of Boletales in Nanling Mountains was provided, and annotations of the excluded or suspected species were given. A phylogentic tree of nrLSU of boletes in Nanling was also provided. The new species, Suillellus rufobrunneus, is characterized by its red to dark purplish-red pileus, smooth, red to dark purplish-red stipe with yellow apical part and longitudinal slight reticula, and elliptical basidiospores measuring 11-15×5.5-7 μm. The examined specimens were deposited in the Fungarium of Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences (GDGM).

  • Research papers
    RONG Xiaoting, GUO Zhe, HE Wenni, CAI Guowei, GONG Kaikai, WANG Lu, YU Liyan, ZHANG Tao, GAO Kun
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1611-1621.

    The components exhibiting anti-tumor bioactivity were isolated from the fermentation crude extract of the fungus Stachybotrys sp. CPCC 401591. Purification of anti-tumor bioactivity- guided compounds was performed. The routine separation approaches for purification included ethyl acetate extraction, silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Six compounds were obtained and their structures were elucidated as satratoxin G (1), mytoxin A (2), 12′-hydroxyroridin E (3), roridin E (4), 4-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-9-trichothecene (5), and arthproliferin A (6) by analysis of spectroscopic data including NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. Among six compounds identified, compounds 1-5 were trichothecene derivatives, while compound 6 was polyketide-derived meroterpenoid. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds 1-6 was evaluated by CCK-8 assay in vitro. The results showed that compounds 1-6 displayed significant inhibition activities on human cervical cancer cells HeLa and human breast cancer cells MCF-7. Additionally, compounds 4-5 could inhibit human lung cancer cells A549 with moderate activities. Our report provides foundation for mining Stachybotrys species for more new anti-tumor compound or drug leads.

  • Research papers
    WANG Dahui, ZHANG Lihua, ZHAO Zhibo, LONG Youhua, HU Xiaoping, FAN Rong
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1588-1600.

    The soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae has a broad host range, and can cause severe Verticillium wilt disease which is difficult to control. Discovery and functional study of important pathogenic proteins of pathogens are expected to provide an insight for disease management. In this study, the hypothetical protein VDAG_07165 containing an unknown functional domain DUF1620 was identified by proteomic analysis, which is highly expressed in V. dahliae during its initial infection of potato root. Deletion of VDAG_07165 gene resulted in a significant decrease of V. dahliae sporulation, conidial germination and penetration, leading to significant reduction of virulence on potato plants. These results indicated that VDAG_07165 could be involved in the early infection process of V. dahliae by regulating the production, germination and penetration of conidia. The role of DUF1620 family proteins in the production and infection of conidia of the soil-borne pathogenic fungus V. dahliae was first explored, and this finding provided a reference for the discovery of new genes with unknown functions and their roles in the development and pathogenesis of fungi.

  • Research papers
    LI Yueqiao, ZENG Suping, HE Ping, FENG Hui, XIE Jianyang, YU Longhua
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1404-1412.

    The yield and main nutritional components of Lentinula edodes cultivated by wood of different tree species of Fagaceae were clarified. The wood basic density, wood moisture content, and content of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, organic carbon and total phenol of 9 main Fagaceae tree species in Dagang mountain area of Jiangxi Province were measured, and the fruting body yield and the content of protein, polysaccharide and fat mass fraction of L. edodes cultivated were analyzed. There were significant relationship between wood basic density, wood moisture content, total nitrogen, total potassium, organic carbon, C/N, and total phenol mass fraction of different experimental wood and total yield and protein mass fraction of L. edodes. The total yield of L. edodes cultivated with Lithocarpus litseifolius wood is the highest, 170.58 g/kg, and the protein content of L. edodes cultivated by Castanopsis sclerophylla wood is the richest, up to 2.65 mg/g. Average daily yield of L. edodes cultivated by different kinds of wood fluctuate with cultivation stages. The yield of L. edodes cultivated with the wood of Cyclobalanopsis gracilis and Lithocarpus litseifolius was the highest at the third fruting peak, while that of other tree species was the highest at the first fruting peak. The total yield of L. edodes was positively correlated with wood moisture content and total phenol content; the protein content of L. edodes was negatively correlated with the wood basic density. The protein content of L. edodes was negatively correlated with the total yield, and the polysaccharide content was positively correlated with the fat content. The wood of Castanopsis tibetana and Quercus fabri is suitable to be used as the high-yield cultivation substrate of L. edodes in commercialized production.

  • Research papers
    BAO Haiying, ZOU Heming, WANG Qingchun, HAN Chen, LIU Ying
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(7): 1622-1634.

    The sedative effects of water extracts of fruiting bodies of Inonotus hispidus at different development stages were studied. The mouse model of insomnia was established by intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg) for 3 days, and the mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, positive group (diazepam 1.50 mg/kg), administrated with budding stage fruit body (69.36, 138.71, 277.42 mg/kg), administrated with mature fruit body (256.04, 512.07, 1 024.14 mg/kg), administrated with aged fruit body (143.20, 286.39, 572.78 mg/kg). After continuous administration for 7 days, the sleep latency and sleep duration of mice were recorded. ELISA method was used to detect the content of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glutamic acid (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in mouse hippocampus. HE staining method was used to observe the pathological changes of mouse hippocampus, and Western blotting method was used to detect mouse hippocampus relative expression levels of 5-HT1AR, cAMP protein kinase catalytic subunit, and PKA in tissues. The results showed that compared with the model group, the water extract of the mature and aged I. hispidus fruiting bodies could significantly increase the rate of falling asleep, shorten the sleep latency, and prolong the sleep duration (P<0.01); HE stained hippocampal tissue of mice showed that the aqueous extracts of fruiting bodies of different development stages had a certain repairing effects on the neurons in the hippocampal tissue of mice with PCPA. Induced insomnia ELISA detection found that the aged fruit body treatment significantly increase the level of monoamine neurotransmitter 5-HT and reduce the level of NE in the hippocampus of mice. Increasing the level of amino acid neurotransmitter Glu had no effects on the level of GABA. Western blotting results showed that compared with the model group, administration of mature and aged fruit body could significantly increase the relative expression of 5-HT1AR, cAMP protein kinase catalytic subunit and PKA in the hippocampus of PCPA. Induced insomnia mice (P<0.01), showing a certain dose effect relationship, and the effects of the aged fruit body is the most significant. The action mechanism is upregulating the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway by increasing the level of 5-HT, DA and Glu, reducing NE levels, and increasing the expression of 5-HT1AR proteins, thereby giving effect to sedation of mice.

  • Research papers
    ZHANG Yuwei, LIAO Wangyi, SONG Rongxiao, PENG Long, YUAN Zhilin
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(6): 1370-1385.

    The industry of Ganoderma lingzhi is developing rapidly. The relative low content of ganoderma triterpenoids (GTs), the main bioactive component of G. lingzhi, however, poses a major challenge. Therefore, increasing GTs content by using a biotechnological approach holds great promises. In this work, various types of fungal elicitors from six strains of Clitopilus spp. were prepared to explore whether or how the elicitor treatments influence the mycelial biomass and GTs accumulation. Results showed that among these elicitors, the autoclaved fermentation broth of Clitopilus sp. HSL-YX-7-A (HSL FB), the dried mycelial powder of C. hobsonii NL-19 (NL-19 DMP), the fermentation broth extract of C. prunulus 84496 (84496 FBE) and the mycelium extract of Clitopilus sp. HSL-YX-7-A (HSL ME) significantly increased the mycelial biomass, GTs content and GTs yield compared with mycelial biomass, GTs content and GTs yield of the experimental control. The biomass increased by 450.09%, 64.64%, 46.97% and 66.14%, respectively; the GTs content increased by 53.01%, 25.58%, 25.17% and 20.47%, respectively; the GTs yield increased by 585.15%, 104.65%, 86.43% and 110.45%, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of key enzyme genes hmgs, hmgr, mvd, fps, sqs and osc involved in the GTs biosynthesis were significantly up-regulated upon the treatments with HSL FB, NL-19 DMP and HSL ME. However, 84496 FBE treatment only resulted in up-regulation of the expressions of hmgs and sqs. There was a significant positive correlation between the average expression level of the six genes and GTs production increase rate (R2=0.972, P<0.05). This study demonstrated that the fungal elicitors from Clitopilus spp. displayed the potentials on efficiently increasing the mycelial biomass and GTs content of G. lingzhi. Clitopilus hobsonii NL-19 and Clitopilus sp. HSL-YX-7-A are endophytic and symbiotic in Quercus root, and they are hopeful to be developed as new beneficial microbiological products.

  • Research papers
    GUO Jing, OU Weiyou, TANG Yongpeng, ZHENG Xiujuan, XIE Zhanling, MENG Qing, PENG Qingqing, WANG Bao, YANG Jiabao
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2023, 42(5): 1063-1076.

    Floccularia luteovirens is a medicinal and edible fungus found only in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It has a high economic value and ecological function of regulating and stabilizing the soil microbial community. The composition and diversity of microbial communities in 9 samples of F. luteovirens nest soil (F) and 9 samples of surrounding soil (CK) were examined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing techniques. Bacteria belonging to 25 phyla, 61 classes, 99 orders, 174 families, and 442 genera were found in the habitat soil of F. luteovirens. The presence of F. luteovirens resulted in the increase of the diversity (Shannon index 6.55) and richness (Ace index 8 104.25) of soil bacteria as compared with diversity and richness of bacteria in the surrounding soil. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria (F: 49.83%, CK: 37.85%) and Sphingomonas (F: 16.17%, CK: 13.28%) was significantly increased. The metabolic function system in the soil of F. luteovirens habitat was the main pathway of the bacterial community, accounting for 38.66% and 13.08% in the F and CK groups, respectively, according to PICRUST functional analysis. In total, 15 phyla, 38 classes, 93 orders, 204 families, and 304 genera of fungi were obtained from the habitat soil. Compared with the surrounding soil, the presence of F. luteovirens decreased soil fungal diversity (Shannon index 1.06) and richness (Ace index 1 269.88). The relative abundance of Basidiomycota significantly increased (F: 87.27%, CK: 36.06%), while that of Ascomycota decreased significantly (F: 7.05%, CK: 43.28%). The relative abundance of Floccularia was 85.76%, being absolutely dominant. The functional prediction of FunGuild showed that soil fungi were mainly symbiotrophic, secondarily saprotrophic. The driving mechanism of F. luteovirens for microorganisms in the habitat soil needs further study.