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Diversity of the ‘reed mushrooms’ and prediction of potential geographic distribution of Agaricus sinodeliciosus
CAO Bin,LIN Rukai,LIU Dongmei,ZHAO Ruilin
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (2): 190-203.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210233
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The ‘reed mushrooms’ are general designation of wild edible fungi grown with Phragmites australis or Tamarix ramosissima in lakeside and mainly distributed in Xinjiang. In this study, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) sequences were used to assess species delimitation of the specimens of ‘reed mushroom’ collected from Xinjiang. Combined with morphological examination, four species of Agaricus, i.e. A. bitorquis, A. padanus, A. sinodeliciosus, and A. subperonatus were recognized. The morphological descriptions, photos, and ITS for each species, as well as the dichotomous key were given. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of 55 ITS sequences from GenBank and 91 newly generated sequences in this study were performed. The four species from Xinjiang were well supported in the ITS tree. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Mycological Herbarium, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (HMAS). The geographical distribution data and correlating environmental factors of A. sinodeliciosus were used to model potential distribution using the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The highly suitable growing regions of A. sinodeliciosus were relatively limited, mainly located in northwestern China and Central Asia. In China, it is mainly distributed in the two sides of Tianshan Mountains, southwestern Tibet, Haixi State of Qinghai, northwestern Gansu, and western Inner Mongolia. The most effective environmental factors, namely the precipitation of wettest month, the precipitation of warmest quarter, the mean temperature of coldest quarter and the maximum temperature of warmest month, had decisive influence upon distribution of the species. Due to limited suitable region of A. sinodeliciosus growth, the protection should be strengthened and sustainable utilization approaches should be developed.

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A name list of common agricultural phytopathogenic fungi in China
WANG Ke, LIU Fang, CAI Lei
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 361-386.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210483
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Phytopathogenic fungi causing plant diseases can induce disaster to ecosystems, food security and agricultural production. With the recent development of fungal taxonomy, a large number of new taxa are proposed. In the latest International Botanical Congresses held in Melbourne and Shenzhen, based on the initiative of “one fungus, one name”, some revisions and supplementations concerning fungal nomenclature have been made to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants. These variations have brought numerous changes in the currently applied names of phytopathogenic fungi. In this list, 590 commonly used names of agricultural phytopathogenic fungi appeared in research papers, monographical works and textbooks in China were selected, involving 370 fungal species belonging to 2 kingdoms, 7 phyla, 15 classes, 47 orders, 84 families and 168 genera. According to the latest nomenclature and taxonomic research progress, the comprehensive check and correction of scientific names, Chinese names, taxonomic status and disease names of these pathogenic fungi are made and provided herein, aiming at providing helpful references for researchers and technicians who are involved with plant pathogenic fungi in China.

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Taxonomy of coprinoid fungi in China
ZHU Liyang,HUANG Mei,BAU Tolgor
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (6): 878-898.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210398
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Coprinoid fungi include the species of Coprinellus, Coprinopsis, Parasola, Tulosesus and Narcissea, belonging to Psathyrellaceae with the exception of Coprinus in Agaricaceae. Based on the specimens and literature records, there are 57 species of coprinoid fungi hitherto known from China, including 9 of Coprinellus, 10 of Tulosesus, 3 of Narcissea, 25 of Coprinopsis, 8 of Parasola, and 2 of Coprinus. Here, 1 new combination, Narcissea ephemeroides, and 11 new Chinese records, Coprinellus ellisii, Coprinellus saccharinus, Coprinopsis acuminata, Coprinopsis afronivea, Coprinopsis bellula, Coprinopsis mitraespora, Coprinopsis narcotica, Coprinopsis pachyderma, Coprinopsis pseudonivea, Parasola schroeteri and Parasola setulosa, were presented. Phylogenetic analysis based on multigene alignment of ITS and LSU sequence datasets was used to investigate the relationships of the fungi. The new combination and newly recorded species were confirmed by the phylogeny result. Illustrations and photographs of these species are provided. Besides, the keys to known species of coprinoid fungi from China were provided.

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Isolation, biological characteristics and domestication of wild Flammulina rossica and F. filiformis
HE Jun,LUO Zonglong,DENG Ruiming,SU Kaimei,LI Shuhong,SU Hongyan
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (4): 630-646.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210259
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Two specimens of wild macrofungi collected from northwestern Yunnan were identified as Flammulina rossica and F. filiformis based on molecular phylogenetic (internal transcriptional spacer) analysis and morphological characters. The isolated strains Mdr-02 and Mdr-09 were used to study their biological characteristics and domestication. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH value and inorganic salt on growth of the mycelium were investigated by single factor test and three optimal levels were selected for orthogonal test to investigate effects of different culture conditions on the growth of mycelia. The results indicated that the optimal carbon source for the growth of F. rossica was malt powder, and the best nitrogen source was bean cake powder, and the best calcium carbonate was inorganic salt. Incubation under pH 6.0 and 24 °C showed optimal growth of the mycelia. The most suitable carbon source for F. filiformis was malt powder, the best nitrogen source was yeast powder, and the best inorganic salt was magnesium sulfate. Incubation under pH 6.0 and 24 °C showed optimal growth of the mycelia. F. rossica was successfully domesticated for the first time and a new domesticable F. filiformis strain was obtained. These results will advantage the development of germplasm resources and the breeding of new cultivated varieties of Flammulina species.

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Comparative analysis of cultivation characteristics and functional constituents of five varieties of Sanghuangporus baumii
LEI Ping,ZHANG Wenjun,WU Yazhao,MA Jingjia
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (2): 274-280.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210226
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The mycelial growth rate, primordial differentiation time, agronomic traits and yield, the content of polysaccharides, total flavonoids, total triterpenes and total phenols of fruiting bodies of five varieties of Sanghuangporus baumii were determined and compared, as well as their scavenging ability on ABTS+ free radicals, DPPH free radicals and hydroxyl free radicals. The results showed that under the same culture condition, there were differences in mycelium growth rate, primordial differentiation time, agronomic characters, yield, active constituents and antioxidant capacity among different S. baumii varieties. S. baumii HN01 has the fastest growth speed, with good growth vigour, rapid differentiation of primordia, good agronomic characters and high yield, and the next best is S. baumii SW. The content of polysaccharides, total flavonoids, total triterpenes and total phenols in S. baumii SW fruiting body is relatively high, and the antioxidant capacity of its active components is the strongest, while the next best is S. baumii HN01. Comprehensive comparison of the total active substances (yield × active ingredient content) among the five cultivated varieties showed that the total crude polysaccharide content of S. baumii HN01 was comparatively high, and the total phenol content of S. baumii SW was comparatively high, while the total flavonoids and total triterpenoids of the varieties were similar. The two varieties, HN01 and SW, could be used as excellent varieties for large scale production.

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The asymmetrical distribution of opposite mating type nuclei in single-ascospore isolates revealed Morchella importuna is a pseudohomothallic fungus
CHAI Hongmei,MA Yuanhao,LIU Ping,CHEN Weimin,TAO Nan,ZHAO Yongchang
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (10): 1607-1618.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220035
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The mating-types of F1 ascocarps, single-ascospore populations and eight single-ascospore strains in an ascus were analyzed based on the crossing of single-ascospore strains YPL6-1 and YPL6-3 of Morchella importuna which harbored MAT1-2 and MAT1-1 idiomorph respectively in their genome-sequencing data. Under the conditions of sowing separately and mix-sowing, strains YPL6-1 and YPL6-3 could fructify normally, and the distribution of mating type in the stipe was related to the parent strain. When the mating type tests were carried out by PCR amplification in 235 single-ascospore strains, something interesting happened: the electrophoretic bands of MAT1-1-1 gene in some strains were bright, but the bands of MAT1-2-1 were weak. In other strains, the MAT1-1-1 band was weak, while the MAT1-2-1 band was bright. Meanwhile, there were strains that two mating gene bands were bright, or strains that one mating gene band was bright while the opposite mating gene band unappeared. Ten asci were separated from three ascocarps and corresponding single ascospores were isolated from each ascus, and the mating types of these single-ascospore strains were analyzed. As a result, the same phenomenon occurred. The single-ascospore strains showing bright MAT1-1-1 band and weak or no MAT1-2-1 band originated from no more than four spores in an ascus, and vice versa. The PCR amplicons of MAT loci in the YPL6-1 and YPL6-3 were sequenced respectively by nanopore approach, and corresponding experiments were repeated twice. The alignment analysis indicated that there were 99.63% and 99.81% MAT1-2 idiomorphs, and 0.37% and 0.19% MAT1-1 idiomorphs in the strain YPL6-1, meanwhile, the strain YPL6-3 contained 99.45% and 99.74% MAT1-1 idiomorphs, and 0.55% and 0.26% MAT1-2 idiomorphs. The result confirmed that these two single-ascospore strains were actually heterokarytic, however, there was a great deviation in proportion of two mating type nuclei. It is speculated that all ascospores in M. importuna are heterokarytic, and the opposite mating type nuclei are asymmetrically distributed in mycelia germinated from single ascospore. Therefore, M. importuna is a pseudohomothallism ascomycete fungus, and the single-ascospore strain could be self-fertile.

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A new and edible species of Hygrophoropsis (Boletales, Basidiomycota) from North China
YANG Hongpeng, ZHOU Meng, WU Gang, BAN Litong
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (2): 181-189.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210383
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Hygrophoropsis is a small genus in Hygrophoropsidaceae of Boletales. A new and edible species, H. phragmiticola, is described based on morphological characteristics, molecular evidence, ecology and geographic distribution. The new species is characterized by creamy-whitish to pale-ochraceous pileal surface, white to cream gills, oblong or ellipsoid, thick-walled, weakly dextrinoid basidiospores measuring 6-10×4-5.5 μm, and growing on Phragmites species in northern China. Molecular analysis based on ITS and nrLSU sequences demonstrates the phylogenetic position of the new species in Hygrophoropsis. The new species and its closely related species are compared and discussed.

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Pathogen of Liquidambar formosana leaf spot
FAN Shaobin,SU Jiyu,FANG Tian,PAN Aifang,HE Xueyou,FAN Gaili,WANG Zonghua,HU Hongli
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 420-434.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210375
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Fifty-five samples of leaves, petioles, branches and bark of Liquidambar formosana infected with leaf spot were collected from several places of Fujian Province, China. Totally 12 isolates of Pestalotiopsis-like fungi were obtained. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS, β-tubulin and tef1 genes in combination with morphological characters, the isolates were identified as Neopestalotiopsis cocoes, N. chrysea, Pestalotiopsis neglecta and P. neolitseae. These species are first reported on Liquidambar formosana, among which N. cocoes is first reported in China. The results of Koch’s postulates showed that N. cocoes could infect the leaves, petioles and branches, N. chrysea could infect the leaves and branches and P. neglecta could infect the petioles and branches, but P. neolitseae appeared to be nonpathogenic.

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Diversity of wood-inhabiting macrofungi in Hainan Province, South China
MA Haixia,SI Jing,DAI Yucheng,ZHU Anhong,CUI Baokai,FAN Yuguang,YUAN Yuan,HE Shuanghui
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (5): 695-712.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210424
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The survey on diversity of wood-inhabiting macrofungi in Hainan Province has been carried out from 2010 to 2021, and 2 212 samples were collected in all kinds of nature reserves, forest parks, and botanical gardens. A total of 702 species, belonging to 19 orders, 68 familes and 256 genera, is identified according to morphological identification and phylogenetic analyses. The 529 species of 16 predominant families, e.g. Polyporaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Xylariaceae, Hypoxylaceae, Hyphodontiaceae, Meruliaceae, Irpicaceae, and so on, accounted for around 75% of the total species, and 357 species of 32 dominant genera, e.g. Xylaria, Hymenochaete, Phellinus, Annulohypoxylon, Fuscoporia, Perenniporia, Trametes, Ganoderma, Inonotus, Polyporus, and so on, occupied 51% of the total species. Three new genera and 92 new species were described based on the type materials from Hainan Province by the authors. Totally, 22, 71 and 6 species are considered to be edible, medicinal and poisonous, respectively.

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Regulatory mechanism of pH on the growth of clinical Candida glabrata
LIU Jing,TAO Li,HUANG Guanghua
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (2): 214-225.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210241
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Candida glabrata is the most frequently isolated pathogen of candidiasis in immunocompromised hosts next to C. albicans. It is survivable under a wide range of environmental conditions, and the ability to adapt to pH changes in the host niches is closely related to pathogenesis. This study found that alkaline pH conditions repressed cell proliferation of C. glabrata, and the key regulators Rim101, Rim8, and Rim21 were involved in this regulation. The TOR signaling pathway plays an important role in the control of pH-regulated cell proliferation. It was further found that alkaline pH also affected the cell wall integrity of C. glabrata. Facts draw the conclusion that the inhibitory effects of pH changes on cell growth and cell wall integrity could provide clues to the development of new strategies of the control of infections caused by C. glabrata.

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Diversity of endophytic fungi from Cinnamomum cassia and their antagonism to the pathogen of C. cassia branch blight in Guangdong, South China
LV Jia, LUO Bi, QIAN Jiaping, ZHANG Jiawen, GAO Yuting, YANG Quan
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 435-449.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210368
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Endophytic fungi from the leaves, branches, roots and barks of 20-year-old and 1-year-old Cinnamomum cassia plants collected from Luoding city, Guangdong Province were investigated. In total, 90 fungal isolates were obtained and identified as 22 genera, 14 families, 10 orders, 3 classes and 2 phyla by colony characteristics, microscopic observation and ITS sequence analysis. Pestalotiopsis, Nigrospora and Diaporthe were the dominant genera. The distribution of endophytic fungi in C. cassia plants had obvious tissue specificity and preference. Endophytic fungi in leaves showed the highest level in diversity, and 49 isolates obtained were referred to 19 genera, accounting for 54.44% of the total number of isolates. The diversity index of endophytic fungi in leaves, branches, roots and barks were 2.63, 1.86, 1.30 and 1.07, respectively. Endophytic fungi were more abundant in 20-year-old (H'=2.39) plants than in 1-year-old plants (H'=2.00). Based on C. cassia branch blight samples in Luoding City, the suspected pathogens were obtained by tissue isolation method, and the pathogen was identified as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae by morphological observation, Koch's rule verification and ITS, TEF and TUB sequence analysis. This is the first discovery of C. cassia branch blight caused by L. pseudotheobromae. The antagonistic effect against L. pseudotheobromae based on plate confrontation observation showed that 9 isolates of endophytic fungi had significant inhibition activity, and the inhibitory rates were all over 52%. Trichoderma sp. DZR-1-2 had the highest inhibitory rate (68.80%), and Hypoxylon vinosopulvinatum DYR-1-7 had the maximum distance of inhibitory zone (2.5 mm). These strains seem useful for biological control of C. cassia branch blight, which are worthy of further study.

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A checklist of pathogenic fungi on Citrus in China
ZHENG Fang,JIAO Chen,XIE Yan,LI Hongye
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 387-411.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220008
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China is the largest citrus-producing country in the world, and the citrus industry plays an important role in national agricultural production. Fungal disease is an important factor restricting the benefit of citrus industry. In the past century Chinese phytopathologists and mycologists have been describing and recording a large number of pathogenic fungi on Citrus. However, with the extensive application of molecular phylogeny in the classification and identification of fungi, the taxonomic status and scientific names of some pathogenic fungi have been changed in recent years. In this paper, the species of pathogenic fungi of citrus diseases that have been reported in China are summarized and revised. This list includes 103 pathogenic fungi and 12 pathogenic oomycetes. In addition, five citrus pathogenic fungi listed in entry quarantine list of China are also included. The scientific and Chinese names of pathogenic fungi and disease names are sorted out and revised based on the latest taxonomy system and fungal nomenclature code. This is the latest standardized list of names of citrus pathogenic fungi and diseases found in China for the convenience of researchers and technicians who involved with the control of citrus fungal diseases.

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Biological characteristics of the pathogen causing Alternaria leaf spot on quinoa
CHEN Yalei,TIAN Miao,SUN Jiangwei,ZHOU Jianbo,REN Lu,QIN Nan,YIN Hui,ZHAO Xiaojun
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (5): 713-729.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210455
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Specimens with typical Alternaria leaf spot symptoms on Chenopodium quinoa were collected in the cultivation area of quinoa in Shanxi Province. The representative isolates LGB-b and LGB-h were tested for verifying pathogenicity and the classification status by using molecular characteristics (Alt a 1, endoPG, and OPA10-2) combined with morphological identification. The results indicated that the quinoa Alternaria leaf spot is caused by Alternaria alternata. Pathogenicity test results showed that the leaves showed typical symptoms in 6 days after inoculation, which matched the symptoms in field, manifesting gray-green spot, grey-brown mould, and yellow-green halo. Isolates LGB-b and LGB-h could infect C. quinoa, C. album, and C. formosanum. The influence of culture medium, temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the growth of representative isolates was studied. It was found that the most favorable medium for growth of mycelia of isolate LGB-b was V8, and the most suitable temperatures were 25-30 °C. The aw higher than 0.98 and pH 6-7 were optimal for both mycelia growth and conidial germination of isolate LGB-b. For growth of mycelia of isolate LGB-h, the most favorable medium was PCA, the most suitable temperatures were 20-25 °C, the optimum aw was higher than 0.98, and the optimum pH was 6-7. The aw higher than 0.98 and pH 7-8 were optimal for conidial germination of isolate LGB-h.

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Domesticated cultivation, nutrient composition and antioxidant activities of Oudemansiella raphanipes
DU Ping, YIN Yujuan, ZHOU Huan, ZHAO Hao, YANG Hongyao, CAO Tianxu
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1471-1482.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220003
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Oudemansiella raphanipes is a precious edible and medicinal fungus. In this study, pomace, vinasse and mushroom bran were used as partial substitute materials for culture media; the first spawn medium, second spawn medium and cultivation substrate formula of wild O. raphanipes were optimized by orthogonal test; the content of water, protein, total carbohydrate, vitamin C, polyphenol and the scavenging ability of alcohol extract on DPPH, ABTs+ and hydroxyl radical were determined. The results showed that the optimal first spawn medium consisted of wheat bran 35 g/L, glucose 20 g/L, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.5 g/L, magnesium sulfate 2 g/L and agar 20 g/L. Glucose and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate were determined to be the important factors affecting the growth of mycelia. The optimal second spawn medium consisted of pomace 45%, bean straw 20%, wheat bran 15%, lime 3%, gypsum 1% and cultivated mushroom bran of Pleurotus eryngii 16%. The addition of pomace could significantly promote the mycelium growth of O. raphanipes. Vinasse (distillerʼs grain) 35%, cottonseed shell 30%, wheat bran 20%, lime 1%, gypsum 1% and corn cob 13% were the optimal cultivation formula of O. raphanipes. The effect of vinasse on the yield of fruiting body was significant. The nutritional composition determination of O. raphanipes showed that the fruiting body was rich in protein, carbohydrate, vitamin C and polyphenols, with the highest content of 42.78 g/100 g, 23.54 g/100 g, 4.02 mg/100 g and 4.19 mg/g, respectively, under cultivation on the media of nine kinds of formula. It was found that different formula of the substrate brought about significant difference in nutrient content of the fruiting bodies. The alcohol extract of O. raphanipes had strong antioxidant capacity, and the antioxidant activity increased with the increase of dosage. When the dosage of alcohol extract was 150 μL and 40 μL, the scavenging ability to DPPH and ABTs+ was 88.64% and 99.81% respectively for the fruiting bodies produced on the culture medium of Z1; when the dosage was 250 μL the scavenging ability to hydroxyl radical was 93.48% for the fruiting bodies produced on the culture medium Z2. The physiological activity, pharmacology research and further development and utilization of O. raphanipes need further study.

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Aureobasidium infections: a literature review
ZHOU Yabin,LI Dongming
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (4): 505-517.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210340
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Aureobasidium is ubiquitous in nature and can infect human occasionally. The pathogenic species include A. pullulans, A. melanogenum, A. proteae and A. mansoni. There are a variety of clinical manifestation types, such as fungemia, peritonitis, skin infection, meningitis, spleen abscess, pneumonia, scleritis, keratitis, lymphadenitis and onychomycosis. Aureobasidium infections are difficult to diagnose and easily misdiagnosed. This literature review is based on related literature in Medline and Chinese literature database, concerning regional distribution, risk factors, clinical manifestation, pathogenic species, antifungal susceptibility, diagnosis and treatment of Aureobasidium infections.

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Xylaria nigripes (wuling) sclerotium powder improving sleep and influencing the expression of brain neurotransmitters and their receptor of mice
FAN Enyu,WEI Zhenhua,FAN Qiuling,HAO Shujuan
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1498-1505.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210491
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Sleeping improvement effects of Xylaria nigripes sclerotium powder on mice and the effect of the power on neurotransmitters and their receptor in brain of mice were investigated. A total of 144 mice was divided randomly into three experimental groups (treated with the dosages of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg bw) and one control group, and the gavage lasted 30 d. Sleep behavior and the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in brain of mice were analyzed. The results showed that, the experimental samples had no direct hypnotic effect and might not affect the growth of body weight. Compared with control group, the sleep latency time induced by barbital sodium decreased (P<0.05) and the sleeping rate increased under the threshold hypnogenesis dosage of pentobarbital sodium in three treatment groups. Sleep time in 0.25 g/kg bw treatment group has no significant increase (P>0.05) while 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg bw treatment group significantly extended sleep time under sodium pentobarbital induction (P<0.05). After administration of Xylaria nigripes sclerotium powder, the content of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) (P<0.05), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (P<0.01) and GABA (P<0.01) in the brain of mice was found to be augmented while that of GABAB receptor (GABABR) was decrease (P<0.05). In conclusion, Xylaria nigripes sclerotium powder could increase the content of GABAAR, 5-HT and GABA in the brain and thus achieve sleeping improvement effect.

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Macrofungal classification system and information platform is launched
HE Maoqiang,ZHU Xinyu,LI Taihui,CUI Baokai,WANG Ke,BAU Tolgor,ZHAO Ruilin
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (6): 899-905.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210359
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Fungi are one of the three main organisms in eukaryote (Fungi, Plantae and Animalia). Fungi with large fruiting bodies visible to the naked eyes and hand-pickable were commonly known as mushrooms and toadstools. Taxonomically, most of the macrofungi are of Basidiomycota and a few Ascomycota. In the past decades, development of molecular analyses and phylogeny promote great progress in fungal taxonomy and the evolutionary relationships of fungal taxa are more perfectly known than before. Thus, the taxonomic systems of macrofungi are changed accordingly, greatly, and updated constantly. However, these changes make difficulties for public users who are interested in macrofungi. To meet the public demands, we revised the taxonomic system of macrofungi based on our recent results of research on molecular phylogeny and taxonomy, and estabilish the Macrofungi Classification System and Information Platform. This platform is supported from State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mycological Society of China, and Fungarium Union of China. This platform provides a comprehensive taxonomic system and information on macrofungi, and will be updated periodically with domestic and international mycologist’s cooperation, to meet the requirements of related researchers.

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Research progress on brown rot pathogens of stone and pome fruit
ZHU Xiaoqiong,DUAN Weijun,HU Mengjun,GUO Liyun
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 331-348.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210480
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Stone and pome fruits account for an important part of China’s fruit production. Brown rot caused by several species of the genus Monilinia can result in flower and fruit rot, causing serious economic losses. Some of these species are important quarantine pathogens in certain countries or regions. This article reviews the main research progress related to taxonomy, species identification, omics and pathogenic mechanism of brown rot pathogens and brown rot disease prevention in the past 20 years. The reliability of the reported rapid detection methods of the pathogens are also summarized and discussed. This paper provides references for high-quality fruit production and plant quarantine application in international fruit trade.

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Species diversity of macrofungi in the Mount Huangshan, East China
GUO Ting,YANG Ruiheng,TANG Mingxia,HOU Di,SUN Xinliang,WANG Li,LI Yan,BAO Dapeng,ZHOU Xuanwei
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1398-1415.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210499
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The Mount Huangshan in Anhui Province is the priority protection area of the Huangshan-Huaiyushan biodiversity conservation, which is rich in biological resources. In order to explore the species diversity of macrofungi in the Mount Huangshan, field investigation and sampling were carried out from 2018 to 2020. The obtained specimens were identified by molecular analysis and morphological characteristics, and the species composition, genus-level biogeographical elements, economic and endemic species in the area were analyzed. In total, 421 species were found, belonging to 9 classes, 19 orders, 72 families and 200 genera. The assessment of utilization value of the macrofungi showed that there were 68 edible species, 31 medicinal species, 39 poisonous species and 66 endemic species. The dominant families were Boletaceae, Amanitaceae, Russulaceae, Polyporaceae, Agaricaceae, Marasmiaceae, Omphalotaceae, Strophariaceae, Entolomataceae and Tricholomataceae, and dominant genera were Amanita, Lactarius, Agaricus, Aureoboletus, Russula, Entoloma, Marasmius, Mycena, Gymnopus, Tylopilus, Trametes, Cortinarius, Ganoderma and Lactifluus. The floristic geographical components of 200 genera can be divided into nine elements, among which the cosmopolitan element is the most dominant (66.5%), and north temperate element (15.5%) and pantropic element (10.5%) rank second and thirdly. The species diversity of macrofungi in the Mount Huangshan is abundant and includes many edible species, and the flora shows obvious cosmopolitan characteristics and endemism to a certain extent.

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Taxonomy of the genus Galerina (Hymenogastraceae, Agaricales) in China
LIU Xiaoliang,ZHANG Hui,LI Yuting,BAU Tolgor
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1354-1369.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210484
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Collections made from 20 provinces and autonomous regions of China were studied, and 36 species were identified, including 28 known species and 8 species are new to China. Morphological description, drawings, photos and discussion were provided for the new records species, namely G. badipes, G. calyptrata, G. jaapii, G. pseudomniophila, G. paludosa, G. physospora, G. sahleri, and G. tibiicystis. DNA sequences were extracted from the Chinese materials, 21 newly generated ITS sequences and 73 download sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood analysis, and the identification results of new record species were verified by the molecular data.

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Biological characteristics and cultivation of Clitocybe fragrans
GU Dandan,SHI Lingyu,LIU Hongxia,ZHANG Jinxiu,YAO Qingguo,WANG Li'an
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (4): 647-657.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210307
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The nutritional and environmental characteristics of a wild Clitocybe fragrans obtained from Pingquan City in Hebei Province were studied. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N, and inorganic salt on the mycelial growth were investigated by single factor test and optimized by orthogonal experiments. The results revealed that the optimum carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N and inorganic salt were sucrose, yeast extract, 40:1, and magnesium sulphate respectively. The culture medium formula was as follows: sucrose 17.3 g, yeast extract 1.8 g, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3 g, anhydrous magnesium sulfate 1.5 g, agar 20 g, and water 1 L. The mycelia grew well at pH 5.0-5.5 and incubation temperature of 19-25 °C under dark condition. The domestic cultivation of the mushroom was executed successfully. The suitable stock culture medium for propagated cultivation was composed of 100 g of compost substrate (boiled juice), 200 g of potato (boiled juice), 20 g of glucose, 3 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 3 g of peptone, 1.5 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate, 20 g of agar and 1 L of water. The mother spawn medium was composed of sorghum 98%, glucose 1%, and gypsum 1%. The spawn substrate was composed of 98% compost substrate, 1% gypsum and 1% glucose with 55% moisture capacity. Using method of sack cultivation, the mycelia were sackful in 35-40 days after inoculation. The primordia were formed 8-10 days later, and grew into fruit bodies after 7-8 days.

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Culture and science history of cordycipitoid fungi
LI Zengzhi,HYWEL-JONE Nigel Leslie,SUN Changsheng
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (11): 1731-1760.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220023
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Based on archaeological evidences, there is a history of over 5 000 years for mankind’s knowledge of cordycipitoid fungi, with culture, art, history, philosophy, religion, convention, medicine, as well as life science involved. The history can be divided into worship, herbal, descriptive, and molecular eras, based on the characters of various periods. (1) Worship era from Hongshan culture to coming-out of Shennong’s Herbal Classics. Archaeological excavation revealed jade silkworm pendants and jade cicada laid in the mouth of the deads, which showed early barbaric knowledge characteristic of worship on reincarnation. Currently, there retain a cicada stele in China and scarab antiques in Egypt, while Maori of New Zealand reserve tattoo tradition by use of Ophiocordyceps robertsii to make tattoo dye. (2) Herbal era (coming-out of Shennong’s Herbal Classics-establishment of the genus Cordyceps in 1818. Cuneiform medical texts of ancient Sumerian revealed that people might use a cordycipitoid fungus against skin diseases. Chinese have been using Beauveria bassiana-infected silkworms since 2 000 years ago, and then Cordyceps chanhua-infected cicadas and Ophiocordyceps sinensis-infected caterpillars for medicine up to the present. In this period, the notion of materialization influenced eastern and western people, resulting in the materializational cognition of cordycipitoid fungi as “animalized plant”, “cicada turned from bamboo root”, “interconversion between insect and grass”. (3) Descriptive era (from 1818 to the end of the 1900’s): In 1818, Fries opened a 300 year chapter of cordycipitoid science development by establishing the genus Cordyceps. The notion of materialization was replaced gradually with modern science, and a vast Cordyceps family was formed gradually. Popular illustration of codycitipoid fungi in Europe and Japan accelarated the popularization of Cordyceps knowledge. Industries of fungal insecticides and foods and medicines by use of Cordyceps in China rose at the mid 1900’s and late 1900’s, respectively. (4) Molecular era (since the beginning of the 2000’s). Driven and supported by contemporary biological science and technology, studies of cordycipitoid fungi developed into a molecular era with uneven advances in different areas. Meanwhile, internal and international exchange became active, promoting the development of the culture of cordycipitoid fungi.

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Biological characteristics and antioxidant activities of wild Ganoderma sichuanense
QIAN Kun,WU Dongmei,WANG Hao,SUN Yifei,SI Jing,CUI Baokai
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (4): 601-617.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210330
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Ganoderma species, generally used as traditional medicine in China, have considerably high medicinal and economic values. A wild Ganoderma isolate collected from Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was purified and identified as Ganoderma sichuanense by molecular biology analysis based on ITS sequences, and its biological characteristics and antioxidant activities were studied. The effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources, inorganic salts, pH, and temperature on the mycelial growth rate under solid cultivation were investigated. Single-factor tests were conducted on the five factors, among which four factors were screened and subjected to an orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources, and inorganic salt for the mycelial growth of wild G. sichuanense were maltose and beef extract, and KH2PO4, respectively, under conditions of pH 7.0 at 30 °C. Further optimization based on orthogonal test proved that the optimal composition of the culture medium was maltose 30.0 g/L, beef extract 5.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, and pH 6.0. The contents of polysaccharide, triterpenoid, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid, the variation of superoxide dismutase activity, and scavenging ability to hydroxyl radicals were determined during the liquid cultivation. It was found that the wild G. sichuanense owned antioxidant activity.

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A noteworthy fungus Diaporthe novem on soybean imported from America
ZHANG Ying,HU Jiaxu,TENG Shaona,LIAO Fang,LUO Jiafeng
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 412-419.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210211
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A fungal strain MDD57 was isolated from soybean seeds imported from America by conventional isolation and culture method. Morphological observation showed that the strain produced pycnidia and a lot of α-conidia and β-conidia on PDA medium, but there was no teleomorph stage. ITS and tef1α gene amplification and DNA sequence alignment indicated that the sequences of the strain were the most similar to the two sequences of Diaporthe novem deposited in GenBank with 100% identity, and the strain was clustered with the strain of D. novem. Koch’s rule verification proved that the strain infected soybean stems and leaves, forming typical Diaporthe symptoms. The isolate was identified as D. novem. This is the first interception report of D. novem from American soybean at Tianjin port. The pathogen is similar to D. caulivora, D. aspalathi and D. longicolla, causing stem canker and seed rot of soybean and bring about serious damage.

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Macrofungal diversity in coniferous forests and grassland of Xinjiang
LIU Yanling,REN Guanru,LIU Sen,WANG Ling,LI Yuanhong,ZHAO Jie,QIU Junzhi
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (7): 1021-1034.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210418
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Macrofungal diversity was explored based on investigation in fifteen sampling plots of five sites in coniferous forests and grassland of Xinjiang during the surveys in 2019. The high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the macrofungal community composition in the sampling plots. Redundancy analyses (RDA) and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) were employed to reveal the relationship between diversity of macrofungi and habitat types as well as other factors related. The results showed that macrofungi in coniferous forests and grassland of Xinjiang were mainly species of Cortinariaceae, Inocybaceae, Clavariaceae, Hygrophoraceae, and so on. Tricholoma, Hebeloma, Suillus, Russula, Cortinarius, Hygrophorus and Inocybe were dominant genera.

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Determination of triterpenoids in Ganoderma lingzhi fruiting body water extract and related products by HPLC
LIANG Rui,FENG Na,ZHANG Jinsong,LI Zhenhao,LI Mingyan,ZHANG Guoliang,XU Jing,WANG Jinyan,TANG Qingjiu
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (2): 309-317.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210256
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Most of the Ganoderma lingzhi medicinal preparations use water extract of fruiting bodies as raw materials. In order to quickly and accurately determine the content of triterpenes in the water extract of G. lingzhi fruiting bodies and related products, a HPLC analysis method with good separation effect is established. Through optimizing the chromatographic column and elution conditions, the Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq C18 chromatographic column (250 mm× 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was selected. Using acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid aqueous solution (0.01%) as mobile phase gradient, under the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength of 252 nm, and column temperature of 30 °C, 10 ganoderic acids such as ganoderic acid A and ganoderic acid F are well separated. Methodological investigations show that the precision, repeatability, stability, and sample recovery of this analytical method are all less than 5%. This method can be used for quantitative detection of 10 types of ganoderic acids including ganoderic acid C2, ganoderic acid G, ganoderenic acid B, and ganoderic acid B. Comparative analysis of 10 triterpenoids in the raw fruiting bodies, water extracts of fruiting bodies and commercial end products of G. lingzhi indicates that the water extracts of G. lingzhi fruiting bodies contain all of these 10 triterpenes, and the content is 2.52%-6.83% being higher than that in raw fruiting bodies. The triterpene content in the commercial end G. lingzhi products is 0.27%-0.84%. This method advantages the establishment of quality standard of G. lingzhi water extract and its products.

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Five new species and one new record of Lactarius (Russulaceae, Russulales) from tropical and subtropical regions of China
WU Fang, WANG Xianghua, QIN Weiqiang, HAO Yanjia, GUO Ting, ZHANG Ping, CHEN Zuohong
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (8): 1234-1253.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210490
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Five new species and one species new to China of Lactarius are reported from tropical and subtropical regions of China based on morphological comparisons and analyses of ITS-nrDNA sequences. The new species L. cheilocystidiatus and L. polycystis are distinctive in L. subg. Plinthogalus due to the presence of macrocystidia. They are closely related to Thai L. crassiusculus. Lactarius gloeocarpus and L. vulgaris are new members of L. subg. Lactarius, characterized by yellowish sticky pileus, reticulate spores and large macrocystidia. They form a species complex with Chinese L. pallido-ochraceus, L. pallidizonatus and Indian L. thindii. Lactarius hunanensis is a new species with strong temperate affinity. It is distinguished by the ixolattice pileipellis with olivaceous incrustations and spores with zebroid ornamentation. Lactarius austroscrobiculatus, a tropical species originally described from Indonesia, was reported in China for the first time. The specimens studied were collected from Anhui, Hainan, Henan, Hunan, Jiangxi and Yunnan. Species documented in this study are representative fungi in the Sino-Japan Forest subkingdom.

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Review on detection and control of wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum
DUAN Weijun, LI Xuelian, LV Yan
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 349-360.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210300
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Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum (MoT) is the causal agent of wheat blast, emerging as a global threat. A summarized account of the disease caused by MoT, including taxonomy, distribution, host range, symptoms, morphological characteristics and other aspects is given in this paper. Future directions for efficient detection and managing this destructive disease are prospected. To date, the wheat blast control is still difficult, and fungicides are unsatisfactory. The strong quarantine regulations and measures are the most effective methods in preventing the pathogen spread and these are also discussed within.

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Effects of cordycepin on the growth and migration of lung cancer cells
SONG Ling,TIAN Di,HUANG Rong,LIU Xinhui,LUO Jiaxing,MA Xiao
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (7): 1088-1098.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210469
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The effect of cordycepin on apoptosis and migration of human bronchoalveolar carcinoma cell line H1781 cells and its mechanism of action were investigated. The H1781 cells were cultured and grouped, and the blank control group was treated with drug-free medium, while the cordycepin treatment group was treated with cordycepin of 10, 20, 30 and 40 μmol/L. Cell viability was measured after 24 h of treatment; cell morphology was observed by microscopy; the effect of cordycepin on the whole cells was observed by HE staining, and apoptosis was detected by MMP-9 and DAPI nuclear staining using cell immunofluorescence method. The apoptosis- related protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Compared with the blank control, the viability of H1781 cell line was significantly reduced after 24 h of cordycepin treatment; the number of cells was significantly reduced. HE staining revealed that the number of cells and cell groups became significantly less with the increase of cordycepin concentration, and the immunofluorescence detection revealed that apoptosis was significantly promoted after drug treatment; the scratching experiment revealed that cordycepin significantly reduced cell migration ability; Western blotting assay showed the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were significantly up-regulated and the expression of MMP-9 and Bcl-2 proteins were significantly down-regulated. The results come to the conclusion that cordycepin can inhibit the migration of lung cancer H1781 cells and promote apoptosis, and these probably result from up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression.

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Diversity of endophytic fungi in coralloid roots of Cycas revoluta
LIU Jiating,XU Haiyan,WANG Zhaochun,PAN Aifang,GONG Xun
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (7): 1035-1043.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210409
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Cycads are the only known gymnosperms with coralloid root up to the present, and they are used as ideal materials to explore the interaction between plants and microorganisms. The diversity and composition of endophytic fungi in coralloid roots of cultivated Cycas revoluta collected from thirteen regions of China were analyzed through next-generation sequencing. High diversity of endophytic fungi presented itself in coralloid roots of C. revoluta, but there was no significant difference in composition and diversity among different regions. The results indicated that the symbiosis between C. revoluta and endophytic fungi within coralloid roots was irrelevant to cultivation area.

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The fungal community structure in the rhizosphere soil and root of Populus tomentosa in different plantations
MAN Xiaowu,YU Jian,YUAN Yuan
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (10): 1531-1545.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220029
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Soil microorganisms play an important role in biological processes such as soil nutrient cycle and energy flow, and can respond sensitively to changes in environmental conditions. In this study, Populus tomentosa was used to explore the effects of three different environmental conditions (community greenbelt, CG; park greenbelt, PG; highway greenbelt, HG) on the structure of rhizosphere soil and root fungal communities. The results showed that there were significant differences in soil fungal diversity index among the three environmental conditions (HG>CG>PG), while there was no significant difference in fungal diversity index of root samples. Environmental conditions played an important role in the composition of fungal community. Fungal community of soil and root of Populus tomentosa was mainly composed of Inocybe, Geopora, Mortierella, Tomentella, Talaromyces, Tuber, Hymenogaster, Alternaria, Thelephora, Knufia and Paxillus. The relative abundance of Inocybe, Tomentella and Geopora was significantly different under different environmental conditions. Comparative analysis showed that the alpha diversity of fungal community in soil samples was significantly higher than that in root samples. There were significant differences in the structure of fungal community between soil and root samples. The relative abundance of Tuber in root samples was significantly higher than that in soil samples. The prediction of fungal community function revealed that there were significant differences in saprophytic functional groups under different environmental conditions and different compartments. This study clarified the effects of the changes of environmental conditions on soil fungal microbiome, and provided reference for forest ecosystem protection and sustainable development of forest land.

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Species diversity of poisonous mushrooms causing poisoning incidents in Yunnan Province, Southwest China
LI Haijiao,ZHANG Yizhe,LIU Zhitao,ZHENG Fenshuang,ZHAO Bing,WU Gang
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1416-1429.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210488
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In recent years, over 500 mushroom poisoning incidents involving more than 2 000 patients and ca. 30 deaths yearly have raised Yunnan as the most severe province of mushroom poisoning in China. Comprehensive investigation on species diversity of poisonous mushrooms causing poisoning incidents is urgently needed for precise prevention and control of mushroom poisoning. Based on species identification of 223 poisoning incidents in Yunnan since 2013, we found that mushroom poisoning occurred throughout the year, especially from June to September, and poisoning incidents and patients peaked in July while deaths peaked in June. Geographically, poisoning occurred in 14 prefectures and Dehong, Yuxi, Baoshan, Chuxiong and Pu’er ranked the top five, which were located in central to southern Yunnan. Forty-seven poisonous mushrooms were identified, causing six different clinical syndromes (acute liver failure, acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, gastroenteritis, psycho-neurological disorder and photosensitive dermatitis). Of which, 16 species originally described from China and three Chinese new records were published since 2019. Amanita exitialis and Russula subnigricans were most poisonous and dangerous in Yunnan, resulting in 19 deaths and 9 deaths, respectively. Chlorophyllum molybdites, R. japonica, Scleroderma cepa, Entoloma omiense and Omphalotus olearius were the top five species causing gastroenteritis. Gymnopilus dilepis, Inosperma cf. virosum and Lanmaoa asiatica monopolized the top positions resulting in psycho-neurological disorder and Cordierites frondosus was the only one species so far causing photosensitive dermatitis in Yunnan Province.

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Interactions between benzimidazole fungicides and β2-tubulin of Fusarium graminearum
SUN Xiaomei,ZHAO Yanxiang,HUANG Jinguang
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (3): 492-500.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210243
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Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating epidemic disease on wheat. At present, the control of FHB mainly depends on the application of fungicides, such as benzimidazoles, whose targets are β2-tubulin. The aim of this research is to investigate the interaction between β2-tubulin protein of F. graminearum and benzimidazoles. The β2-tubulin structure was obtained by homology modeling method. Structures of β2-tubulin complexed with the small molecular inhibitor, carbendazim, benomyl, thiabendazole and thiophanate-methyl, were built respectively by molecular docking based on β2-tubulin structure. Molecular docking results showed that the amino acid Phe198 and Val236 in F. graminearum β2-tubulin can directly interact through hydrogen bonds with four benzimidazole molecules, and the amino acid residues at position 50, 134, 165, 167, 198, 200, 236, 237, 239, 240, 250, 253, 257, 314 of F. graminearum β2-tubulin can form a drug binding pocket. The binding energy of β2-tubulin/carbendazim is lowest (-5.72 kcal/mol) and the affinity is highest, as compared with the other three complexes. The sensitivity of F. graminearum to four benzimidazole fungicides was tested using mycelium growth rate method, and the results showed that the EC50 value of F. graminearum to carbendazim, benomyl, thiabendazole and thiophanate-methyl was 0.772, 0.862, 1.088, and 13.266 mg/L, respectively, indicating that F. graminearum is more sensitive to carbendazim than to the other three fungicides, and this is consistent with the molecular docking results.

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Research progress of triterpenes from mycelia of Ganoderma lingzhi and its pharmacological effects
FENG Na,YUE Yawen,CHENG Chilu,YANG Mei,WANG Chan,ZHANG Jingsong
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1341-1353.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220040
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During vegetative growth and development of Ganoderma lingzhi (or Ganoderma lucidum), mycelia produce triterpenes with specific structures, which are different from the tritepenes in fruiting bodies and basidiospore. This paper summarized the progress of researches on structures, bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of triterpenes isolated and identified from mycelia of G. lingzhi in order to provide scientific reference for the basic research in biosynthesis, metabolic regulation and application of triterpenes and their related products.

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Characteristics and influencing factors of fungal community in the casing soil of cultivating Oudemansiella raphanipes
QIN Wentao,ZHAO Juan,GAO Lin,WANG Shouxian,LIU Yu,QIAO Guanghang
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (9): 1458-1470.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.220052
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Oudemansiella raphanipes is a kind of edible fungi cultivated depending on casing soil. The characteristics and influencing factors of fungal community in casing soil of cultivating O. raphanipes were studied by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology combined with biological information and statistics methods. The results showed compared with the fungal community in the original casing soil, the diversity of fungal community in casing soil after cultivation of O. raphanipes decreased significantly. Ascomycetes dominated the fungal communities before and after cultivation of O. raphanipes, except that Cladosporium, Acremonium, Gibberella, Emericellopsis, etc. decreased in relative abundance after cultivation. The relative abundance of Stillbella, Neocosmospora, Pseudonymnoascus and Preussia in the phylum Mortierellomycota tended to increase. The fungi in casing soil before and after the cultivation of O. raphanipes were mainly saprophytic, and those in casing soil after cultivation were mainly dung-saprophytic and wood-saprophytic. Further study found that the physichemical properties of casing soil, such as pH, available potassium, available phosphorus and total nitrogen and so on significantly affected the composition of fungal community. pH and available potassium content were significantly negatively correlated with the richness and diversity of fungal community. Further analysis of fungal communities of casing soil is needful for deepening the revelation of the microecological mechanism of O. raphanipes.

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Research progress on the interaction between α-amanitin and eukaryotic RNA polymeraseⅡ
WU Zhijun,LI Haijiao,SUN Chengye
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (6): 851-870.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210426
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Amanitin is the most lethal mushroom toxin in mushroom poisoning cases in China. The main mechanism of amanitin poisoning is the interaction between amanitin and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Ⅱ and inhibiting the formation of mRNA. In this paper, the research progress concerning interaction between α-amanitin and eukaryotic polymerase Ⅱ was reviewed. The research history of 110 years (1907-) of interaction between α-amanitin and eukaryotic polymerase Ⅱ is divided into eight stages, including early research on amanitins, advancement of chemical structure analysis, toxicology research, structure-activity relationship research, biochemistry research, molecular biology research, structural biology research, and drug development and evaluation. The corresponding discussion on research processes and important results is given. Hopefully this paper will bring new thinking to the field of clinical toxicology.

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Effects of Gleditsia sinensis fermentation product on disease control and main soil microbial community of Dictyophora rubrovolvata
ZHANG Xue,ZHANG Xuexue,HU Xin,XU Hanhong,TIAN Yongqing
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (4): 618-629.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210358
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Disease prevention and growth promoting effect of Gleditsia sinensis fermentation product on Dictyophora rubrovolvata, the local specialty of Guizhou Province, were investigated. The pathogenic bacterium was isolated in the laboratory and the plate confrontation experiment was carried out. Four treatments were designed in the field experiment: conventional treatment without pesticide, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HN11 treatment, G. sinensis powder treatment and G. sinensis fermentation product treatment. The control effect was investigated, the size and number of fungus eggs (young basidiocarp) were measured, and the changes of soil microbial community were detected. A pathogen was isolated from the diseased tissue and identified as Enterobacter cloacae. The field control effect of G. sinensis fermentation product on diseased D. rubrovolvata reached 77.86%, and D. rubrovolvata field growth area increased by 61.22%. As compared with untreated control, the relative abundance of D. rubrovolvata in the soil treated with G. sinensis fermentation product reached the highest of 25.83%. The G. sinensis fermentation product can effectively prevent and control disease of D. rubrovolvata, promote the growth of D. rubrovolvata eggs, reduce the dosage of chemical pesticides, stimulate the ecological cycle, ensure safety of edibles, and improve the comprehensive benefits of G. sinensis and D. rubrovolvata industries.

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Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of Penicillium canescens
KANG Ruiping,AIFEIRE Abuduaini,ZHOU Huiying,SUO Feiya,DING Mingliang
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (4): 518-528.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210324
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The mitochondrial genome of Penicillium canescens SFY00C3 isolated from Ophiocordyceps gracilis was determined and its composition characteristics were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationship between the genome and Penicillium species was explored. The results showed that the mitochondrial genome of P. canescens SFY00C3 was a circular DNA molecule with a length of 28 301 bp, encoding 42 genes (15 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 25 tRNA genes). Its base composition had significant A-T bias. All of the 25 tRNA genes could form a typical cloverleaf structure with 32 G-U mismatches. Gene rearrangement of mitochondrial genome was found by collinearity analysis among Penicillium species. The Ka/Ks values of 14 protein coding genes were less than 1, indicating that they were subjected to purification selection pressure. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFY00C3 was an independent branch in Penicillium and should be the sister of the ancestors of six species of Penicillium. This finding enriched the mitochondrial genome sequence information of P. canescens, and provided basic data for phylogenetic analysis, resource protection and genetic diversity of Penicillium.

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A new Hypsizygus marmoreus cultivar ‘Minzhen 5’
LI Jiahuan, JIN Wensong, SUN Shujing, CHEN Liding, ZHANG Haiyang, HU Kaihui
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (2): 321-323.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210325
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Hypsizygus marmoreus ‘Minzhen 5’ was bred by protoplast mononuclear hybridization using ‘Minzhen 3’ and ‘Baiyu-01’ strains as parents. The cap is white and hemispherical, with few and small streaks. The protein content of fresh fruit body is 2.1%, and the total amino acid content is 1.43%. The demonstration cultivation shows that the suitable temperature for mycelial growth is 20-27 °C, and the growth temperature of fruiting body is 12-17 °C. The mycelial culture period is 110 d, and fruiting body formation cycle is 28 d. The average yield is 635.17g/bag. The cultivar has the characteristics of short growth cycle, high yield and good marketability, which is suitable for industrial year-round bag cultivation.

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Response of Armillaria borealis rhizomorph growth and development to environmental oxygen and soil humidity
ZENG Yujie,WANG Yehong,TAN Tao,WANG Chuanhua
MYCOSYSTEMA    2022, 41 (5): 739-748.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.210446
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Armillaria spp. are important plant pathogen and symbiotic fungi of Gastrodia elata, which can spread in soil in the form of rhizomorph. The influence of soil environmental changes on the growth and development of Armillaria rhizomorph is an important process related to forest Armillaria disease and Gastrodia elata production. In this study, Armillaria borealis was selected as material, and a two-factor experiment was designed to test the effects of oxygen and soil humidity on development and growth of A. borealis rhizomorph. Four oxygen concentration levels (5%, 15%, 20% and 30%) and four soil humidity levels (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) were designed. The rhizomorph of A. borealis were cultured in chambers under dark and 25 °C condition, then the occurrence time (T) of rhizomorph was observed, and the rhizomorph dry weight (DW), rhizomorph length (L), rhizomorph number (Nt), rhizomorph branch number (Nf), and rhizomorph average diameter (AD) were determined. The results showed that oxygen and soil humidity had a significant effect on the development growth of A. borealis rhizomorph. The fastest growth and development were presented under oxygen concentration of 15% and soil humidity of 60%. This study provided some referential data for artificial control of the growth and development of A. borealis, and improving the yield of Gastrodia elata cultivation.

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