The Mount Huangshan in Anhui Province is the priority protection area of the Huangshan-Huaiyushan biodiversity conservation, which is rich in biological resources. In order to explore the species diversity of macrofungi in the Mount Huangshan, field investigation and sampling were carried out from 2018 to 2020. The obtained specimens were identified by molecular analysis and morphological characteristics, and the species composition, genus-level biogeographical elements, economic and endemic species in the area were analyzed. In total, 421 species were found, belonging to 9 classes, 19 orders, 72 families and 200 genera. The assessment of utilization value of the macrofungi showed that there were 68 edible species, 31 medicinal species, 39 poisonous species and 66 endemic species. The dominant families were Boletaceae, Amanitaceae, Russulaceae, Polyporaceae, Agaricaceae, Marasmiaceae, Omphalotaceae, Strophariaceae, Entolomataceae and Tricholomataceae, and dominant genera were Amanita, Lactarius, Agaricus, Aureoboletus, Russula, Entoloma, Marasmius, Mycena, Gymnopus, Tylopilus, Trametes, Cortinarius, Ganoderma and Lactifluus. The floristic geographical components of 200 genera can be divided into nine elements, among which the cosmopolitan element is the most dominant (66.5%), and north temperate element (15.5%) and pantropic element (10.5%) rank second and thirdly. The species diversity of macrofungi in the Mount Huangshan is abundant and includes many edible species, and the flora shows obvious cosmopolitan characteristics and endemism to a certain extent.