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  • Orginal Article
    Tie-Zhi LIU, Jian-Yun ZHUANG
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2015, 34(3): 341-344. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.140160
    Abstract (396) Download PDF (22908) HTML (41)   Knowledge map   Save

    Two taxa of Puccinia on Asteraceae collected from China are reported. Puccinia sonidensis on Scorzonera divaricata is described as new species. Puccinia hieracii var. hypochaeridis on Hypochaeris ciliata is firstly recorded in China. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided based on Chinese collections. The collections are deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of Chifeng University, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China (CFSZ), and the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae, Beijing, China (HMAS).

  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(3): 342-346.
    Primers were designed to specifically amplify ITS rDNA regions of the fungus Medeolaria farlowii. The fungus was shown to be present not only in stem lesions but in apparently uninfected leaves, stems and rhizomes of the host plant, Medeola virginiana. Since the plant reproduces clonally it is likely that the infection is carried in populations of the host plant through systemic infection of vegetative plant parts. The growth patterns of the plant are reviewed and examples are given of long-term perpetuation of the fungus in populations of the plant.
  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(3): 563-573.
    Rate variation of evolution among-site in rRNA genes is a potential problem leading to a systematic error in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we applied different partitioning strategies based on the characters of rRNA secondary structure to examine this problem. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of 52 fungal taxa, we assessed the performance of different partitioning schemes on Bayesian inference. The comparison of evolutionary models demonstrated the relative sensitivities of the best-fit models and parameter estimates to different structural partitions. In contrast to traditional unpartitioned method, partitioning schemes based on loop elements of secondary structure have little effects on phylogenetic analyses, while the use of stem elements improve the marginal likelihoods and the ability to estimate phylogenies. Additionally, despite strong support by Bayes factors, simply including more partition subsets do not to improve ability to estimate phylogenies, which means that biological factors (or secondary structure characters) instead of mathematics ones should be considered to yield a reasonable partitioning strategy for rRNA genes.
  • Orginal Article
    Hui CHEN, Hai-Long YANG, Gao-Qiang LIU
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2015, 34(1): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.130185
    Abstract (1095) Download PDF (13559) HTML (82)   Knowledge map   Save

    Ganoderma triterpenoids are major pharmacologically active components in the fruiting bodies and mycelia of G. lingzhi. Structure-activity relationship, basic biosynthetic pathways and key enzymes, as well as strategies and methods for the fermentation control of triterpenoids from G. lingzhi were reviewed. The main problems in biosynthesis and fermentation control of triterpenoids were put forward and the future research orientation and prospect were discussed.

  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(4): 643-670.
    A checklist of 382 species and 3 varieties of macrofungi in Shandong Province was listed on the basis of field investigation and specimen examination. They belong to 2 phyla 5 classes 18 orders 60 families 162 genera. Among them, 373 species are Basidiomycota and 12 species are Ascomycota. Voucher specimens are deposited at the Herbaria of Ludong University (HMLD) and Beijing Forestry University (BJFC). The habit and distributions in Shandong of each species were also recorded. In addition, the descriptions of morphological characteristics and line drawing of 5 species new to China were given.
  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(3): 429-447.
    Recent collections and herbarium specimens of the genus Scutellinia from different regions of China were examined. Thirty-one species were recognized. Among them, S. neokorfiana, S. oblongispora and S. pseudovitreola are described as new species. The occurrence of S. erinaceus, S. olivascens (as S. lusatiae) and S. lusatiae in China are doubtful. Based on examinations of the related specimens, the previous Chinese records of S. barlae, S. superba and S. vitreola are based on mis-identifications, which should be excluded from the Chinese fungus flora. A key to the known species of the genus from the country is provided.
  • short communications
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(3): 474-481.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(4): 577-597.
    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris are the two best-known species in the genus Cordyceps sensu lato. Here, we review recent research progresses of these two fungi on their taxonomy, distribution, life cycle and mode of sexual reproduction, host range, genetic diversity, molecular genetics and genomics, ecology, artificial cultivation and related-product developments. We also discuss the major issues remaining in the current research for these two fungal organisms and suggest the approaches for future studies.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2009, 28(3): 315-327.
    The polypores treated in the present list are in wide sense (sensu lato), including the poroid species in Polyporales, Hymenochaetales, Gloeophyllales, Trechisporales, Corticiales, Thelephorales and Russulales, and a few poroid genera of Agaricales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Auriculariales (e.g. Dictyopanus, Favolaschia, Elmerina, Fistulina and Protomerulius). Based on more than 10 000 collected specimens and other poroid specimens of aphyllophoraceus fungi in the main mycological herbaria in China, the knowledge of Chinese polypores is summarized, and 604 species are recorded in the country so far. All of the polypore names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). 121 new Chinese names are proposed.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2010, 29(1): 1-21.
    The publications on Chinese edible fungi were critically reviewed, and 187 previously mentioned edible fungi were excluded and 82 newly found species were added. As a result, 966 taxa including 936 species, 23 varieties, 3 subspecies and 4 forms from China were enumerated in the present checklist. All of the names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code).
  • short communications
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(5): 778-787.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(6): 947-955.
    The polysaccharides of Paecilomyces tenuipes mycelia were purified by using DEAE cellulose DE-52 and Sephedex G-100, and pure polysaccharides PtPs1 and PtPs2 were obtained. The structural unit (monosaccharide) of PtPs1 and PtPs2 was analyzed by HPAEC-PAD. The results indicated that both PtPs1 and PtPs2 consisted of glucose, galactose and mannose. The infrared spectral analysis showed that PtPs1 and PtPs2 were all pyranose of α-configuration.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(4): 519-525.
    Observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization status and measurement of colonization percentage is an important fundamental work in mycorrhizal research. Methods for root staining and quantifying AM colonization percentage is reviewed, compared and evaluated in this paper. Ink-vinegar staining method observing colonization status, root-segment colonization weighting method, and magnified intersections method measuring colonization percentage, are considered to be appropriate approaches in AM studies with greater scientific, accurate and feasible values when compared with other methods. Different observation methods can be used for different purposes. For example, magnified intersection method could be chosen to observe and measure the arbuscule development status of AM fungi, whilst direct counting method could be employed to count the numbers of vesicles and entry points per unit root length. Thus the research results obtained for specific purposes are comparable. It is necessary to establish molecular techniques and fatty acid quantitative method to measure colonization status of one or more species of AM fungi, which will promote studies in physiological and ecological function.
  • short communications
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(1): 133-137.
    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that three strains S-1, S-2, and S-3 of endophytic fungi isolated from roots, stems and leaves of Spiranthes sinensis could produce flavonoid. To identify these 3 strains, ITS DNA regions of 3 strains were amplified through PCR reaction and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by the software MEGA (version 4.0) using Neighbour-joining methods. Morphological observation and molecular biology identification indicated that the strain S-1 was Curvularia inaequalis., and S-2 and S-3 were Penicillium pinophilum.
  • Orginal Article
    Guo-Jie LI, Sai-Fei LI, Dong ZHAO, Hua-An WEN
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2015, 34(5): 821-848. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.150085
    Abstract (2466) Download PDF (2989) HTML (561)   Knowledge map   Save

    The genus Russula is a group of edible and medicinal fungi with high economic and scientific value. Some Russula are poisonous. Recent research progress of Russula, including species resource, taxonomy, phylogeny, genetic diversity and application study are summarized. Major issues being in urgent need of solution remain in current research, such as misidentification caused by deviation in morphological observation and description, limited taxa and gene segments involved in phylogeny and genetic diversity work, and controversial distribution of massive taxa in China originally described from Europe and North America, etc.

  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2010, 29(5): 625-628.
    Publications dealing with Chinese fungal species were systematically investigated, and 2,849 new species, 129 new varieties and 5,260 new Chinese records have been reported during 1978 to 2010. “Sylloge Fungorum Sinicorum” was published in 1979, listed 6,737 species and 168 varieties based on the reports on Chinese fungal resource until 1973. So 14,846 species and 297 varieties have been found in mainland China by 2010. In addition, 2,122 fungal species were recorded in Hong Kong and 6,207 in Taiwan, among which around 800 and 400 species, respectively, were not found in mainland China so far. Until now there are 16,046 species and 297 varieties have been recorded in the Chinese territory. If 10% of them are the synonyms, the Chinese fungal species are around 14,700. Among them around 300 species are Chromista, 340 are Protoza, and 14,060 are Fungi.
  • Orginal Article
    Jin-Xia ZHANG, Qiang CHEN, Chen-Yang HUANG, Wei GAO, Ji-Bin QU
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2015, 34(4): 524-540. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.150076
    Abstract (2098) Download PDF (2554) HTML (421)   Knowledge map   Save

    In this paper, the history of understanding and utilization of mushrooms is reviewed. China’s contribution to mushroom cultivation in early era is known to all and the development of mushroom industry at present is in progress. The development course and current situation of mushroom industry in China is presented. The basic situation of global mushroom industry and developing history, especially button mushroom industry in the West and mushroom industry in Asia is discussed. Changes in the production mode and technology of world mushroom industry are analyzed. The transfer trend of global mushroom industry from developed to developing regions will continue. China will accelerate the change of production mode into systematization, large scale, standardization and specialization.

  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(2): 180-190.
    Cordycepin, the first nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Fungi, has been a hotspot nowadays due to a variety of bio-activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory activities and so on. The previous studies on cordycepin, including the fungal sources, extraction, purification and molecular biology, were summarized in the present paper. The patents on cordycepin both at home and abroad have also been analyzed and evaluated. It was suggested that broadening the fungal strain sources, optimizing the method of extraction and purification as well as deepening the research on biosynthesis pathway are useful to overcome the bottleneck in cordycepin production. In addition, the importance of the scientific names used in the study of mycology was emphasized.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2009, 28(5): 718-723.
    Mitochondria are important cytoplasmic organelles of eukaryotic cells in energy metabolism and cell aging. Gene sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are also an important candidate for phylogenetical study. In the present paper, the whole mitochondrial DNA sequence of Beauveria bassiana, registered in EMBL with the accession number EU371503, was used to clarify the relationship between B. bassiana and 13 fungal species in 11 genera including Lecanicillium, Metarhizium, Hypocrea, Fusarium, Gibberella, Verticillium, Neurospora, Podospora, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton of Pezizomycotina. The result showed that rnl, rns, 25 tRNAs and 14 protein genes of B. bassiana were all encoded by the sequences on the same strand and the most of the tRNAs arranged in three conserved trn gene clusters, revealing similarities to other members of Sordariomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that B. bassiana was highly similar to Lecanicillium muscarium based on the whole mtDNA sequence with querage coverage at 73%, and on 14 protein-coding genes with 100% bootstrap support by both NJ method and MP method.
  • Orginal Article
    Zhao-Yi XU, Hao LI, Ping ZHANG
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2015, 34(3): 386-393. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.140069
    Abstract (966) Download PDF (2336) HTML (169)   Knowledge map   Save

    Different stages of life cycle of Flammulina velutipes were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Mycelia formed from a single germinating basidiospore was monokaryotic and had no clamp connections. Parts of single-basidiospore isolates could form homokaryotic haplont fruiting bodies. Probasidia of homokaryotic fruiting bodies in the beginning contained one haploid nucleus that underwent once mitosis producing two incompatible nuclei and the development of the basidium became stagnant. Thus, the homokaryotic fruiting bodies were sterile. A pair of monokaryotic mycelia with compatible mating types formed heterokaryotic mycelium via plasmogamy. Heterokaryotic mycelia with two nuclei could produce clamp connections, and formed heterokaryotic fruiting bodies. Probasidia of heterokaryotic fruiting bodies had two compatible haploid nuclei which fused and formed a diploid nucleus subsequently. The diploid nucleus underwent meiosis and produced four haploid nuclei and each of them migrated into four basidiospores respectively through sterigmata. Each basidiosporic nucleus underwent mitosis producing two haploid nuclei. Thus, mature basidiospores of the heterokaryon were dikaryotic but homogeneous. Both homokaryotic mycelia and heterokaryotic mycelia can produce uninuclear iodia.

  • Orginal Article
    Lin WANG, Mei-Chun XIANG, Xing-Zhong LIU
    MYCOSYSTEMA. 2015, 34(5): 849-862. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.140299
    Abstract (1175) Download PDF (2293) HTML (158)   Knowledge map   Save

    Insect developed the ability to cultivate fungi as a food source about 40-60 million years ago, and this represented an evolutionary transition from a hunting-gathering to a farming lifestyle. Agricultural life ultimately enabled all of these insect farmers to rise their ecological adaptability. Insect fungiculture shares some defining features of human agriculture including habitual planting ("inoculation"), cultivation, harvest, and nutritional dependency. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites, and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions, and protecting the fungal crop by using symbiotic actinomycetes. More examples being called “proto-fungiculture” show excellent farming skills, as exemplified by leaf rolling weevils that farm mycangial fungi on leaf cradles, marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass, lizard beetles that farm mycangial fungi on bamboos and woodwasps that farm white rot fungi. Investigation of adaptive features of these fungus farming insects would provide much practical value for human agriculture.

  • BAU Tolgor, BAO Hai-Ying, LI Yu
    Mycosystema. 2014, 33(3): 517-548. https://doi.org/10.13346/j.mycosystema.130256
    435 poisonous mushrooms from China were enumerated in this article by literature survey and specimens inspection. All of Latin names and Chinese names were checked or revised. Latin names were revised. The toxic ingredients and poisoning type were listed for each species, and the original or relevant references were provided.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(1): 16-28.
    A total of 103 isolates of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 27 species in 15 genera were obtained from soil samples of Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, Shaanxi Province, China. Among them Eladia pachyphialis and Gliomastix pallescens are new species, while Acremoniula sarcinellae, Allescheriella crocea, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium pannorum are new records to China. The main distinction between E. pachyphialis and its similar species E. saccula is that the phialide of the former is wider and the conidia are smaller than those of the latter. Gliomastix pallescens is characterized by having light colored, long and unbranched conidiophores by which it can be separated from its similar species, G. cerealis. Latin descriptions are given for the new species. Brief descriptions and illustrations of the new records are also provided based on Chinese isolates. The other 21 species being previously known from China in several genera are also listed. All specimens (dried cultures and slides) and living cultures studied have been deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP).
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2012, 31(6): 809-820.
    DNA barcode uses a short gene sequence taken from standardized portions of the genome to identify species. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), as an animal DNA barcode, has been successfully employed in the species identification. In plants a combination of chloroplast rbcL and matK genes has been accepted as basic DNA barcode. In fungi more genes have being screened and evaluated in all major lineages of fungi by mycologists all over the world. Recently, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) has been recommended as primary DNA barcode of fungi in the Fourth International Barcode of Life Conference. This review summarized the recent progress of fungal DNA barcode, and pointed out the prospect of DNA barcode in future fungal studies.
  • short communications
    Mycosystema. 2007, 26(4): 607-632.
    The researches on secondary metabolites from Cordyceps and its related fungi were reviewed. There are 272 compounds with activities of pesticide, anticancer, anti-microbes, immune modulation, anti-plasmodium and so on have been reported. These compounds mainly originated from more than 20 species of Cordyceps and their anamorphs and related fungi. The researches concerning bioactive metabolites from Cordyceps have attracted scientists’ attention in various countries of the world. However, there are still more than 90% of the total known species of Cordyceps and their related fungi needing investigation of their bioactive compounds.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(6): 801-824.
    More and more people have recently payed their attention to studies or investigations on medicinal fungi in China. However, many nomenclatural inconsistencies were found in the Chinese reports. The publications on Chinese medicinal fungi were critically reviewed. As a result, 473 medicinal fungi from China were enumerated in the present checklist. All of the names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). The ‘out-of-date’ names, ill-names, and un-existed names and misapplied names in the previous reports were revised. The common synonyms were listed after their valid names. The main medicinal functions of each species, together with the original or important references, were provided.
  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2009, 28(2): 299-302.
  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2010, 29(4): 518-527.
    Natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau. Various fungal species have been reported to be associated with natural O. sinensis. In this study, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis was investigated with the traditional culture-dependent method. In total, 572 fungal cultures were isolated from different parts (stromata, sclerotia, and external mycelial cortices) of natural O. sinensis. Most of these cultures were assigned to 37 genera according to morphological characteristics, and 92 OTUs were identified at the 97% similarity threshold according to their nrDNA ITS sequences following SSCP analyses. The number of isolates and OTUs of Ascomycetes was larger than that of Basidiomycetes and Zygomycetes. More isolates and OTUs were obtained from cortices than from sclerotia and stromata. The most abundant species from stromata was Penicillium chrysogenum, while that from both sclerotia and cortices was Pseudogymnoascus roseus. Several unclassifiable fungal species were also detected in this study, which could be novel species.
  • short communications
    Mycosystema. 2009, 28(6): 888-894.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(6): 836-845.
    Nematophagous fungi are those fungi with the capacity to capture, parasitise or paralyse nematodes at all stages of their life cycles. They play an important role as antagonists of plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes, therefore, there is a great interest in using these fungi as model samples in adaptative evolution researches and as biological control agents against parasitic nematodes. This review presents progress made in the field of fungal antagonists of parasitic nematodes, including trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi, toxin-producing fungi and opportunistic fungi.
  • Papers
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(2): 161-167.
    Sporotrichosis is a common fungal infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pathogen of this disease constitutes a complex of several species. For the purpose to study physiological and molecular characters of this fungal pathogen in China, 33 clinical strains of Sporothrix spp. were chosen in this study. First, we evaluated the growth ability at 37℃ and measured their colony diameters of these strains in 21 days after incubation on PDA. Second, we evaluated the ability to assimilate carbon resources. Last, we performed the phylogeny analysis based on the sequences of their calmodulin genes after being amplified and sequenced. The results demonstrated that these strains were all identified as Sporothrix globosa, indicating S. globosa may be the major cause of sporotrichosis in China.
  • short communications
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(5): 788-796.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(3): 367-378.
    Edible mycorrhizal fungi (EMF) play a vital role in forest ecosystem and generally have nutritional, economic and ecological values. This report summarizes current advances in the study of EMF with particular references to China. Topics covered in this review include resource distribution and utilization, physiological and ecological functioning of EMF, as well as advanced techniques in fungal domestication and cultivation. Opportunities and challenges in the development of EMF in China, and global hotspots in research and development of EMF, are discussed.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2013, 32(1): 1-14.
    DNA molecular markers technique has been introduced as new approaches to study fungal phylogeny and evolution. Nowadays, fungal molecular systematics is a mature discipline, and the history of development and representative research approaches of fungal molecular systematics and the main attributions of these approaches to fungal systematics are discussed in this paper. The organisms studied by mycologists, fungi, are divided into three different groups. The slime moulds and oomycetes do not belong to the Kingdom of Fungi. The recent milestone is the AFTOL (Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life) project, in which a higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi is proposed. The kingdom Fungi traditionally consisted of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota, but more recent classifications of the fungal kingdom now include Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Microsporidia and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina and Zoopagomycotina. The concept of the different taxa in fungi has also been revised. Furthermore, the investigation of molecular markers technique influences the fields such as fungal species concept recognition, the connection of teleomorph and anamorph, and molecular fungal ecology, etc.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(2): 258-266.
    By using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we successfully transformed Fusarium verticillioides and obtained T-DNA insertion mutants. Under the optimal condition of 106spores/mL, A. tumefaciens OD600=0.15-0.20, 200μg/mL acetosyringone and 36h co-cultivation, the transformation efficiency reached 60-120 transformants per 106spores. More than 1000 transformants were obtained. Most of them were quite stable after five rounds of successive cultures. PCR amplification showed that the T-DNA was integrated into the genome, and was stable through mitotic cell division. The transformation system is the basis for study of pathogenicity mechanism and functional gene of the fungi.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(2): 198-205.
    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GPS) are of the key pharmacologically active components of this medicinal fungus. Structure-activity relationship, constituents of monosaccharides of GPS, and basic biosynthetic pathways of the key GPS, IPS-1-1, as well as strategies and methods of fermentation control of GPS were reviewed. Further, future orientation in development of biosynthesis and fermentation control of GPS was discussed.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2010, 29(1): 59-63.
    Ustilaginoidea virens, the pathogen of rice false smut, was isolated from various diseased samples. The comparison of isolation methods showed that most fresh chlamydospores from earlier mature false smut balls could germinate and isolation time was the key for the successful isolation of the fungus. Prolongation of store period resulted in quick decline of the germination percentage of chlamydospores. Most of the chlamydospores could be killed by sterilizing treatment. It was proved that the sclerotium was the most ideal sample for isolation of the pathogen, which could keep alive for a very long time. However, the central dense hyphae in false smut balls were very difficult to grow into new colonies on medium and just an alternate method for isolation of the pathogen.
  • Mycosystema. 2008, 27(4): 574.
    Phenolic compounds from field-grown Inonotus obliquus sclerotia (Chaga) consist mainly of hispidin analogs and melanins, and are thought to be the active constituents to treat several human diseases. In submerged cultures of the fungus, however, no information is currently available on the production of phenolic compounds and their corresponding pharmacological functions. In this study, phenolic compounds from Chaga and submerged cultures of the fungus were assayed for their composition and immune-stimulating effects. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in submerged cultures mostly consist of flavonoids, together with small amounts of hispidin analogs and melanins. This is quite contrary to the situation in Chaga, where flavonoids are determined as trace elements. Furthermore, phenolic compounds from Chaga show capacity about two-fold higher than those produced in submerged cultures in inhibiting cyclophosphamide-induced reduction of bodyweight, spleen index and viability of peripheral lymphocytes in test mice. Thus less production of hispidin analogs and melanins is likely to be responsible for less immune-stimulating effects in phenolic compounds from submerged cultures, and additional factors should be imposed during submerged cultures of I. obliquus to regulate biosynthesis of phenolic compounds directed to the composition similar to Chaga.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2011, 30(4): 515-518.
    According to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and Nomenclatural Code for Chinese Scientific Names of Fungi and Lichens adopted by the Mycological Society of China in 1986, the nomenclature of the following six important Chinese medicinal fungi is suggested: Taiwanofungus camphoratus (M. Zang & C.H. Su) Sheng H. Wu et al., Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát, Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Quél., Perenniporia robiniophila (Murrill) Ryvarden, Pholiota microspora (Berk.) Sacc. and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora.
  • Review
    Mycosystema. 2008, 27(3): 377-384.
    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been expressed in a variety of organisms and has been used extensively as a marker in the study of host-pathogen interaction. We have expressed GFP in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana through transformation with a vector that confers resistance to phosphinothricin. Conidia expressed GFP and were readily detected by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent hyphae and conidia were easily distinguished in the tissue of the cabbage worm. GFP-tagged strains of B. bassiana could be used to study the developmental fate of the fungus within its insect hosts. Thus, this method is useful for screening and monitoring the engineered strains even after infection.