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A new species and a new Chinese record of Puccinia on Asteraceae from China
Tie-Zhi LIU, Jian-Yun ZHUANG
MYCOSYSTEMA    2015, 34 (3): 341-344.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.140160
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Two taxa of Puccinia on Asteraceae collected from China are reported. Puccinia sonidensis on Scorzonera divaricata is described as new species. Puccinia hieracii var. hypochaeridis on Hypochaeris ciliata is firstly recorded in China. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided based on Chinese collections. The collections are deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of Chifeng University, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China (CFSZ), and the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae, Beijing, China (HMAS).

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Systemic infection of Medeola virginiana (Liliaceae) by the fungus Medeolaria farlowii (Ascomycota: Leotiomycetes)
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (3): 342-346.  
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Primers were designed to specifically amplify ITS rDNA regions of the fungus Medeolaria farlowii. The fungus was shown to be present not only in stem lesions but in apparently uninfected leaves, stems and rhizomes of the host plant, Medeola virginiana. Since the plant reproduces clonally it is likely that the infection is carried in populations of the host plant through systemic infection of vegetative plant parts. The growth patterns of the plant are reviewed and examples are given of long-term perpetuation of the fungus in populations of the plant.
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Performance of partitioning rRNA data — an example of Bayesian inference in Ascomycota
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (3): 563-573.  
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Rate variation of evolution among-site in rRNA genes is a potential problem leading to a systematic error in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we applied different partitioning strategies based on the characters of rRNA secondary structure to examine this problem. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of 52 fungal taxa, we assessed the performance of different partitioning schemes on Bayesian inference. The comparison of evolutionary models demonstrated the relative sensitivities of the best-fit models and parameter estimates to different structural partitions. In contrast to traditional unpartitioned method, partitioning schemes based on loop elements of secondary structure have little effects on phylogenetic analyses, while the use of stem elements improve the marginal likelihoods and the ability to estimate phylogenies. Additionally, despite strong support by Bayes factors, simply including more partition subsets do not to improve ability to estimate phylogenies, which means that biological factors (or secondary structure characters) instead of mathematics ones should be considered to yield a reasonable partitioning strategy for rRNA genes.
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Biosynthesis and fermentation control of triterpenoids from Ganoderma lingzhi
Hui CHEN, Hai-Long YANG, Gao-Qiang LIU
MYCOSYSTEMA    2015, 34 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.130185
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Ganoderma triterpenoids are major pharmacologically active components in the fruiting bodies and mycelia of G. lingzhi. Structure-activity relationship, basic biosynthetic pathways and key enzymes, as well as strategies and methods for the fermentation control of triterpenoids from G. lingzhi were reviewed. The main problems in biosynthesis and fermentation control of triterpenoids were put forward and the future research orientation and prospect were discussed.

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Diversity of macrofungi in Shandong Province, China
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (4): 643-670.  
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A checklist of 382 species and 3 varieties of macrofungi in Shandong Province was listed on the basis of field investigation and specimen examination. They belong to 2 phyla 5 classes 18 orders 60 families 162 genera. Among them, 373 species are Basidiomycota and 12 species are Ascomycota. Voucher specimens are deposited at the Herbaria of Ludong University (HMLD) and Beijing Forestry University (BJFC). The habit and distributions in Shandong of each species were also recorded. In addition, the descriptions of morphological characteristics and line drawing of 5 species new to China were given.
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The genus Scutellinia (Pyronemataceae) from China with a key to the known species of the country
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (3): 429-447.  
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Recent collections and herbarium specimens of the genus Scutellinia from different regions of China were examined. Thirty-one species were recognized. Among them, S. neokorfiana, S. oblongispora and S. pseudovitreola are described as new species. The occurrence of S. erinaceus, S. olivascens (as S. lusatiae) and S. lusatiae in China are doubtful. Based on examinations of the related specimens, the previous Chinese records of S. barlae, S. superba and S. vitreola are based on mis-identifications, which should be excluded from the Chinese fungus flora. A key to the known species of the genus from the country is provided.
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Research methods for apoptosis of filamentous fungi
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (3): 474-481.  
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris: research advances, issues and perspectives
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (4): 577-597.  
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris are the two best-known species in the genus Cordyceps sensu lato. Here, we review recent research progresses of these two fungi on their taxonomy, distribution, life cycle and mode of sexual reproduction, host range, genetic diversity, molecular genetics and genomics, ecology, artificial cultivation and related-product developments. We also discuss the major issues remaining in the current research for these two fungal organisms and suggest the approaches for future studies.
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A checklist of polypores in China
Mycosystema    2009, 28 (3): 315-327.  
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The polypores treated in the present list are in wide sense (sensu lato), including the poroid species in Polyporales, Hymenochaetales, Gloeophyllales, Trechisporales, Corticiales, Thelephorales and Russulales, and a few poroid genera of Agaricales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Auriculariales (e.g. Dictyopanus, Favolaschia, Elmerina, Fistulina and Protomerulius). Based on more than 10 000 collected specimens and other poroid specimens of aphyllophoraceus fungi in the main mycological herbaria in China, the knowledge of Chinese polypores is summarized, and 604 species are recorded in the country so far. All of the polypore names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). 121 new Chinese names are proposed.
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A revised checklist of edible fungi in China
Mycosystema    2010, 29 (1): 1-21.  
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The publications on Chinese edible fungi were critically reviewed, and 187 previously mentioned edible fungi were excluded and 82 newly found species were added. As a result, 966 taxa including 936 species, 23 varieties, 3 subspecies and 4 forms from China were enumerated in the present checklist. All of the names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code).
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Purification and component analysis of polysaccharides from mycelia of Paecilomyces tenuipes
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (6): 947-955.  
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The polysaccharides of Paecilomyces tenuipes mycelia were purified by using DEAE cellulose DE-52 and Sephedex G-100, and pure polysaccharides PtPs1 and PtPs2 were obtained. The structural unit (monosaccharide) of PtPs1 and PtPs2 was analyzed by HPAEC-PAD. The results indicated that both PtPs1 and PtPs2 consisted of glucose, galactose and mannose. The infrared spectral analysis showed that PtPs1 and PtPs2 were all pyranose of α-configuration.
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Endophytic fungi producing flavonoids from Spiranthes sinensis
Mycosystema    2011, 30 (1): 133-137.  
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Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that three strains S-1, S-2, and S-3 of endophytic fungi isolated from roots, stems and leaves of Spiranthes sinensis could produce flavonoid. To identify these 3 strains, ITS DNA regions of 3 strains were amplified through PCR reaction and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by the software MEGA (version 4.0) using Neighbour-joining methods. Morphological observation and molecular biology identification indicated that the strain S-1 was Curvularia inaequalis., and S-2 and S-3 were Penicillium pinophilum.
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Advances in studies of fungal genomics
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (5): 778-787.  
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Recent research progress of Russula (Russulales, Agaricomycetes): a review
Guo-Jie LI, Sai-Fei LI, Dong ZHAO, Hua-An WEN
MYCOSYSTEMA    2015, 34 (5): 821-848.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.150085
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The genus Russula is a group of edible and medicinal fungi with high economic and scientific value. Some Russula are poisonous. Recent research progress of Russula, including species resource, taxonomy, phylogeny, genetic diversity and application study are summarized. Major issues being in urgent need of solution remain in current research, such as misidentification caused by deviation in morphological observation and description, limited taxa and gene segments involved in phylogeny and genetic diversity work, and controversial distribution of massive taxa in China originally described from Europe and North America, etc.

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Numbers of fungal species hitherto known in China
Mycosystema    2010, 29 (5): 625-628.  
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Publications dealing with Chinese fungal species were systematically investigated, and 2,849 new species, 129 new varieties and 5,260 new Chinese records have been reported during 1978 to 2010. “Sylloge Fungorum Sinicorum” was published in 1979, listed 6,737 species and 168 varieties based on the reports on Chinese fungal resource until 1973. So 14,846 species and 297 varieties have been found in mainland China by 2010. In addition, 2,122 fungal species were recorded in Hong Kong and 6,207 in Taiwan, among which around 800 and 400 species, respectively, were not found in mainland China so far. Until now there are 16,046 species and 297 varieties have been recorded in the Chinese territory. If 10% of them are the synonyms, the Chinese fungal species are around 14,700. Among them around 300 species are Chromista, 340 are Protoza, and 14,060 are Fungi.
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Methodological comparison of observation and colonization measurement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Mycosystema    2011, 30 (4): 519-525.  
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Observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization status and measurement of colonization percentage is an important fundamental work in mycorrhizal research. Methods for root staining and quantifying AM colonization percentage is reviewed, compared and evaluated in this paper. Ink-vinegar staining method observing colonization status, root-segment colonization weighting method, and magnified intersections method measuring colonization percentage, are considered to be appropriate approaches in AM studies with greater scientific, accurate and feasible values when compared with other methods. Different observation methods can be used for different purposes. For example, magnified intersection method could be chosen to observe and measure the arbuscule development status of AM fungi, whilst direct counting method could be employed to count the numbers of vesicles and entry points per unit root length. Thus the research results obtained for specific purposes are comparable. It is necessary to establish molecular techniques and fatty acid quantitative method to measure colonization status of one or more species of AM fungi, which will promote studies in physiological and ecological function.
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Behavior of nuclei in life cycle of Flammulina velutipes
Zhao-Yi XU, Hao LI, Ping ZHANG
MYCOSYSTEMA    2015, 34 (3): 386-393.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.140069
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Different stages of life cycle of Flammulina velutipes were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Mycelia formed from a single germinating basidiospore was monokaryotic and had no clamp connections. Parts of single-basidiospore isolates could form homokaryotic haplont fruiting bodies. Probasidia of homokaryotic fruiting bodies in the beginning contained one haploid nucleus that underwent once mitosis producing two incompatible nuclei and the development of the basidium became stagnant. Thus, the homokaryotic fruiting bodies were sterile. A pair of monokaryotic mycelia with compatible mating types formed heterokaryotic mycelium via plasmogamy. Heterokaryotic mycelia with two nuclei could produce clamp connections, and formed heterokaryotic fruiting bodies. Probasidia of heterokaryotic fruiting bodies had two compatible haploid nuclei which fused and formed a diploid nucleus subsequently. The diploid nucleus underwent meiosis and produced four haploid nuclei and each of them migrated into four basidiospores respectively through sterigmata. Each basidiosporic nucleus underwent mitosis producing two haploid nuclei. Thus, mature basidiospores of the heterokaryon were dikaryotic but homogeneous. Both homokaryotic mycelia and heterokaryotic mycelia can produce uninuclear iodia.

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Mutualistic mechanism between fungus-growing insects and symbiotic fungi
Lin WANG, Mei-Chun XIANG, Xing-Zhong LIU
MYCOSYSTEMA    2015, 34 (5): 849-862.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.140299
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Insect developed the ability to cultivate fungi as a food source about 40-60 million years ago, and this represented an evolutionary transition from a hunting-gathering to a farming lifestyle. Agricultural life ultimately enabled all of these insect farmers to rise their ecological adaptability. Insect fungiculture shares some defining features of human agriculture including habitual planting ("inoculation"), cultivation, harvest, and nutritional dependency. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites, and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions, and protecting the fungal crop by using symbiotic actinomycetes. More examples being called “proto-fungiculture” show excellent farming skills, as exemplified by leaf rolling weevils that farm mycangial fungi on leaf cradles, marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass, lizard beetles that farm mycangial fungi on bamboos and woodwasps that farm white rot fungi. Investigation of adaptive features of these fungus farming insects would provide much practical value for human agriculture.

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Notes on soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, ChinaⅠ
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (1): 16-28.  
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A total of 103 isolates of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 27 species in 15 genera were obtained from soil samples of Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, Shaanxi Province, China. Among them Eladia pachyphialis and Gliomastix pallescens are new species, while Acremoniula sarcinellae, Allescheriella crocea, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium pannorum are new records to China. The main distinction between E. pachyphialis and its similar species E. saccula is that the phialide of the former is wider and the conidia are smaller than those of the latter. Gliomastix pallescens is characterized by having light colored, long and unbranched conidiophores by which it can be separated from its similar species, G. cerealis. Latin descriptions are given for the new species. Brief descriptions and illustrations of the new records are also provided based on Chinese isolates. The other 21 species being previously known from China in several genera are also listed. All specimens (dried cultures and slides) and living cultures studied have been deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP).
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Cordycepin research and exploitation: progress and problems
Mycosystema    2011, 30 (2): 180-190.  
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Cordycepin, the first nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Fungi, has been a hotspot nowadays due to a variety of bio-activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory activities and so on. The previous studies on cordycepin, including the fungal sources, extraction, purification and molecular biology, were summarized in the present paper. The patents on cordycepin both at home and abroad have also been analyzed and evaluated. It was suggested that broadening the fungal strain sources, optimizing the method of extraction and purification as well as deepening the research on biosynthesis pathway are useful to overcome the bottleneck in cordycepin production. In addition, the importance of the scientific names used in the study of mycology was emphasized.
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Mycobiotal investigation of natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis based on culture-dependent investigation
Mycosystema    2010, 29 (4): 518-527.  
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Natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau. Various fungal species have been reported to be associated with natural O. sinensis. In this study, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis was investigated with the traditional culture-dependent method. In total, 572 fungal cultures were isolated from different parts (stromata, sclerotia, and external mycelial cortices) of natural O. sinensis. Most of these cultures were assigned to 37 genera according to morphological characteristics, and 92 OTUs were identified at the 97% similarity threshold according to their nrDNA ITS sequences following SSCP analyses. The number of isolates and OTUs of Ascomycetes was larger than that of Basidiomycetes and Zygomycetes. More isolates and OTUs were obtained from cortices than from sclerotia and stromata. The most abundant species from stromata was Penicillium chrysogenum, while that from both sclerotia and cortices was Pseudogymnoascus roseus. Several unclassifiable fungal species were also detected in this study, which could be novel species.
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DNA molecular marker techniques: application to and influence on fungal systematics
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (1): 1-14.  
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DNA molecular markers technique has been introduced as new approaches to study fungal phylogeny and evolution. Nowadays, fungal molecular systematics is a mature discipline, and the history of development and representative research approaches of fungal molecular systematics and the main attributions of these approaches to fungal systematics are discussed in this paper. The organisms studied by mycologists, fungi, are divided into three different groups. The slime moulds and oomycetes do not belong to the Kingdom of Fungi. The recent milestone is the AFTOL (Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life) project, in which a higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi is proposed. The kingdom Fungi traditionally consisted of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota, but more recent classifications of the fungal kingdom now include Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Microsporidia and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina and Zoopagomycotina. The concept of the different taxa in fungi has also been revised. Furthermore, the investigation of molecular markers technique influences the fields such as fungal species concept recognition, the connection of teleomorph and anamorph, and molecular fungal ecology, etc.
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A revised checklist of medicinal fungi in China
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (6): 801-824.  
Abstract1340)   HTML    PDF(pc) (379KB)(1941)       Save
More and more people have recently payed their attention to studies or investigations on medicinal fungi in China. However, many nomenclatural inconsistencies were found in the Chinese reports. The publications on Chinese medicinal fungi were critically reviewed. As a result, 473 medicinal fungi from China were enumerated in the present checklist. All of the names were checked or revised in accordance with the contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). The ‘out-of-date’ names, ill-names, and un-existed names and misapplied names in the previous reports were revised. The common synonyms were listed after their valid names. The main medicinal functions of each species, together with the original or important references, were provided.
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A rapid extraction of genomic DNA from fungi
Mycosystema    2009, 28 (2): 299-302.  
Abstract1090)   HTML    PDF(pc) (416KB)(1939)       Save
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Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Fusarium verticillioides and T-DNA insertional mutagenesis of the fungus
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (2): 258-266.  
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By using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we successfully transformed Fusarium verticillioides and obtained T-DNA insertion mutants. Under the optimal condition of 106spores/mL, A. tumefaciens OD600=0.15-0.20, 200μg/mL acetosyringone and 36h co-cultivation, the transformation efficiency reached 60-120 transformants per 106spores. More than 1000 transformants were obtained. Most of them were quite stable after five rounds of successive cultures. PCR amplification showed that the T-DNA was integrated into the genome, and was stable through mitotic cell division. The transformation system is the basis for study of pathogenicity mechanism and functional gene of the fungi.
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Secondary metabolites and their bioactivities of Cordyceps and its related fungi
Mycosystema    2007, 26 (4): 607-632.  
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The researches on secondary metabolites from Cordyceps and its related fungi were reviewed. There are 272 compounds with activities of pesticide, anticancer, anti-microbes, immune modulation, anti-plasmodium and so on have been reported. These compounds mainly originated from more than 20 species of Cordyceps and their anamorphs and related fungi. The researches concerning bioactive metabolites from Cordyceps have attracted scientists’ attention in various countries of the world. However, there are still more than 90% of the total known species of Cordyceps and their related fungi needing investigation of their bioactive compounds.
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Phenolic compounds from Inonotus obliquus and their immune-stimulating effects
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (4): 574-null.  
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Phenolic compounds from field-grown Inonotus obliquus sclerotia (Chaga) consist mainly of hispidin analogs and melanins, and are thought to be the active constituents to treat several human diseases. In submerged cultures of the fungus, however, no information is currently available on the production of phenolic compounds and their corresponding pharmacological functions. In this study, phenolic compounds from Chaga and submerged cultures of the fungus were assayed for their composition and immune-stimulating effects. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in submerged cultures mostly consist of flavonoids, together with small amounts of hispidin analogs and melanins. This is quite contrary to the situation in Chaga, where flavonoids are determined as trace elements. Furthermore, phenolic compounds from Chaga show capacity about two-fold higher than those produced in submerged cultures in inhibiting cyclophosphamide-induced reduction of bodyweight, spleen index and viability of peripheral lymphocytes in test mice. Thus less production of hispidin analogs and melanins is likely to be responsible for less immune-stimulating effects in phenolic compounds from submerged cultures, and additional factors should be imposed during submerged cultures of I. obliquus to regulate biosynthesis of phenolic compounds directed to the composition similar to Chaga.
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Advances in studies of edible mycorrhizal fungi
Mycosystema    2011, 30 (3): 367-378.  
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Edible mycorrhizal fungi (EMF) play a vital role in forest ecosystem and generally have nutritional, economic and ecological values. This report summarizes current advances in the study of EMF with particular references to China. Topics covered in this review include resource distribution and utilization, physiological and ecological functioning of EMF, as well as advanced techniques in fungal domestication and cultivation. Opportunities and challenges in the development of EMF in China, and global hotspots in research and development of EMF, are discussed.
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Comparison of isolation methods for Ustilaginoidea virens, the pathogen of rice false smut
Mycosystema    2010, 29 (1): 59-63.  
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Ustilaginoidea virens, the pathogen of rice false smut, was isolated from various diseased samples. The comparison of isolation methods showed that most fresh chlamydospores from earlier mature false smut balls could germinate and isolation time was the key for the successful isolation of the fungus. Prolongation of store period resulted in quick decline of the germination percentage of chlamydospores. Most of the chlamydospores could be killed by sterilizing treatment. It was proved that the sclerotium was the most ideal sample for isolation of the pathogen, which could keep alive for a very long time. However, the central dense hyphae in false smut balls were very difficult to grow into new colonies on medium and just an alternate method for isolation of the pathogen.
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Progress of fungal DNA barcode
Mycosystema    2012, 31 (6): 809-820.  
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DNA barcode uses a short gene sequence taken from standardized portions of the genome to identify species. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), as an animal DNA barcode, has been successfully employed in the species identification. In plants a combination of chloroplast rbcL and matK genes has been accepted as basic DNA barcode. In fungi more genes have being screened and evaluated in all major lineages of fungi by mycologists all over the world. Recently, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) has been recommended as primary DNA barcode of fungi in the Fourth International Barcode of Life Conference. This review summarized the recent progress of fungal DNA barcode, and pointed out the prospect of DNA barcode in future fungal studies.
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GFP as a vital marker for investigation of pathogenic development of Beauveria bassiana
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (3): 377-384.  
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The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been expressed in a variety of organisms and has been used extensively as a marker in the study of host-pathogen interaction. We have expressed GFP in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana through transformation with a vector that confers resistance to phosphinothricin. Conidia expressed GFP and were readily detected by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent hyphae and conidia were easily distinguished in the tissue of the cabbage worm. GFP-tagged strains of B. bassiana could be used to study the developmental fate of the fungus within its insect hosts. Thus, this method is useful for screening and monitoring the engineered strains even after infection.
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Reclassification of 33 clinical strains of Sporothrix from northern China based on phenotypic and molecular characters
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (2): 161-167.  
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Sporotrichosis is a common fungal infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pathogen of this disease constitutes a complex of several species. For the purpose to study physiological and molecular characters of this fungal pathogen in China, 33 clinical strains of Sporothrix spp. were chosen in this study. First, we evaluated the growth ability at 37℃ and measured their colony diameters of these strains in 21 days after incubation on PDA. Second, we evaluated the ability to assimilate carbon resources. Last, we performed the phylogeny analysis based on the sequences of their calmodulin genes after being amplified and sequenced. The results demonstrated that these strains were all identified as Sporothrix globosa, indicating S. globosa may be the major cause of sporotrichosis in China.
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The Fusarium species isolated from banana and their phylogenetic relationships
Mycosystema    2013, 32 (4): 617-632.  
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Fusarium species are important pathogens of banana, especially causing such serious diseases as Panama disease and crown rot disease. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 (Foc 1) and race 4 (Foc 4) were reported as the pathogenic populations of Panama disease in China, but it has been confused with the Fusarium species of crown rot disease. In order to understand the Fusarium diversities associated with banana in both interspecific and intraspecific levels, 143 Fusarium isolates were cultured from 90 banana samples collected from fruit markets and banana orchards in South China in 2008–2011. Based on morphological observation and phylogenetic analyses with partial translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene, ten Fusarium species were recognized, including F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. camptoceras, F. pallidoroseum, F. stiloides, F. chlamydosporum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. concentricum, F. sacchari, and three undescribed taxa in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFC). F. concentricum is newly recorded in China. F. sacchari is firstly reported from banana. F. concentricum and F. sacchari were the most common GFC species in banana fruits. Phylogenic analyses were conducted for GFC and the F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). 27 partial EF-1α sequences of GFC strains were employed and seven clades were recognized, including F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. concentricum, F. sacchari and three undescribed lineages recorded as Fusarium sp. 1, Fusarium sp. 2 and Fusarium sp. 3. 50 partial EF-1α sequences of FOSC were employed and their phylogenetic analysis generated two major clades and 12 monophyletic lineages, 21 South China isolates in seven lineages, and 13 pathogenic strains distributing in three of them. The phylogenetic studies showed that the pathogens of Panama disease in China Mainland were closely related to those from Southeast Asia and Taiwan, China and wider genetic differentiation were found among the race 1 strains than the race 4 strains. Race 1 was genetically closer to the isolates obtained from fruits as compared with race 4. It is concluded that more Fusarium species and genetic groups are associated with banana and show plentiful intraspecific diversity.
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Biosynthesis and fermentation control of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum
Mycosystema    2011, 30 (2): 198-205.  
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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GPS) are of the key pharmacologically active components of this medicinal fungus. Structure-activity relationship, constituents of monosaccharides of GPS, and basic biosynthetic pathways of the key GPS, IPS-1-1, as well as strategies and methods of fermentation control of GPS were reviewed. Further, future orientation in development of biosynthesis and fermentation control of GPS was discussed.
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A revised checklist of poisonous mushrooms in China
BAU Tolgor,BAO Hai-Ying,LI Yu
Mycosystema    2014, 33 (3): 517-548.   DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.130256
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435 poisonous mushrooms from China were enumerated in this article by literature survey and specimens inspection. All of Latin names and Chinese names were checked or revised. Latin names were revised. The toxic ingredients and poisoning type were listed for each species, and the original or relevant references were provided.
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Molecular detection of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Phellodendron amurense
Mycosystema    2008, 27 (6): 884-893.  
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The rhizospheric soil and root samples of Phellodendron amurense were collected in the Logging Station of Northeast Forestry University. The AM fungi isolated were identified morphologically and molecularly. Four species were obtained. They were Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae, Scutellospora calospora and Glomus versiforme. However, only G. intraradices, G. mosseae and S. calospora were detected from the root samples of Phellodendron amurense by nested-PCR. It was indicated that the roots of Phellodendron amurense were not infected by G. versiforme.
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Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life and current phylogentic mycology in the USA
Mycosystema    2009, 28 (6): 878-887.  
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The abandonment of the name Fusarium moniliforme and the concept of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex
Mycosystema    2010, 29 (1): 143-151.  
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Tripterygium wilfordii has been traditionally used as folk medicine for centuries in China for the treatment of immune-inflammatory diseases. However, Tripterygium wilfordii has a narrow therapeutic window. In order to increase the therapeutic index of Tripterygium wilfordii, a novel fungal fermentative method, i.e. bi-direction solid fermentation was used. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum has a good toxicity-reducing efficacy and efficacy-maintaining action. The present study aims at establishing the technology of toxicity-reducing and efficacy-maintaining action of fungal fermentative products of Tripterygium wilfordii by using bi-direction solid fermentation method and finding the optimum fermenting condition. Dynamic comparison in the course of fermentation using Ganoderma lucidum as inoculum was conducted, and the changes of chemical composition, acute toxicity and immunologic function of Ganoderma lucidum-Tripterygium wilfordii combination in different fermentative duration were observed. The results showed that the content of total diterpene was the lowest (only 0.57%) in the fungal fermented substance (G30) in incubation period of 30 days. Compared with the crude drug of Tripterygium wilfordii, G30 had the highest LD50 and the best effects of immunosuppression both in humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Synthetical analysis showed that, fermentative period of 30 days could be regarded as optimum for toxicity-reducing and efficacy-maintaining action of the fungal fermentative products in Tripterygium wilfordii by bi-direction solid fermentation.
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Advances in the research of dark septate endophytes
Mycosystema    2009, 28 (6): 888-894.  
Abstract934)   HTML    PDF(pc) (316KB)(1719)       Save
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